|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth.
(1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Chronicles 21:17; 22:1, 6, 8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).
(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 10:35). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of the land by his son Jehoash (13:1-9, 25).
(3.) Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum (1 Chronicles 3:15). He succeeded his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months (2 Kings 23:31, 34). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32), was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt, where he died in captivity (23:33, 34; Jeremiah 22:10-12; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
je-ho'-a-haz, je-ho-a'-haz (yeho'achaz, "Yah has grasped"; Ioachas; 2 Kings 13:1-9):
(1) Son of Jehu, and 11th king of Israel. He is stated to have reigned 17 years.
1. Chronology of Reign:
Josephus was already aware (Ant., IX, viii, 5) of the chronological difficulty involved in the cross-references in 2 Kings 13:1 and 10, the former of which states that Jehoahaz began to reign in the 23rd year of Jehoash of Jerusalem, and reigned 17 years; while the latter gives him a successor in Jehoash's 37th year, or 14 years later. Josephus alters the figure of 13:1 to 21; and, to meet the same difficulty, the Septuagint (Aldine edition) changes 37 to 39 in 13:10. The difficulty may be met by supposing that Jehoahaz was associated with his father Jehu for several years in the government of the country before the death of the latter, and that these years were counted as a part of his reign. This view has in its favor the fact that Jehu was an old man when he died, and may have been incapacitated for the full discharge of administrative duties before the end came. The accession of Jehoahaz as sole ruler may be dated about 825 B.C.
2. Low Condition of the Kingdom:
When Jehoahaz came to the throne, he found a discouraged and humiliated people. The territory beyond Jordan, embracing 2 1/2 tribes, or one-fourth of the whole kingdom, had been lost in warfare with the Syrian king, Hazael (2 Kings 10:32, 33). A heavy annual subsidy was still payable to Assyria, as by his father Jehu. The neighboring kingdom of Judah was still unfriendly to any member of the house of Jehu. Elisha the prophet, though then in the zenith of his influence, does not seem to have done anything toward the stability of Jehu's throne.
3. Israel and Syria:
Specially did Israel suffer during this reign from the continuance of the hostility of Damascus (2 Kings 13:3, 4, 22). Hazael had been selected, together with Jehu, as the instrument by which the idolatry of Israel was to be punished (1 Kings 19:16). Later the instruments of vengeance fell out. On Jehu's death, the pressure from the east on Hazael was greatly relieved. The great conqueror, Shalmaneser II, had died, and his son Samsi-Ramman IV had to meet a revolt within the empire, and was busy with expeditions against Babylon and Media during the 12 years of his reign (824-812 B.C.). During these years, the kingdoms of the seaboard of the Mediterranean were unmolested. They coincide with the years of Jehoahaz, and explain the freedom which Hazael had to harass the dominions of that king.
4. The Elisha Episodes:
Particulars of the several campaigns in which the troops of Damascus harassed Israel are not given. The life of Elisha extended through the 3 reigns of Jehoram (12 years), Jehu (28 years) and Jehoahaz (12 or 13 years), into the reign of Joash (2 Kings 13:1). It is therefore probable that in the memorabilia of his life in 2 Kings 4-8, now one and now another king of Israel should figure, and that some of the episodes there recorded belong to the reign of Jehoahaz. There are evidences that strict chronological order is not observed in the narrative of Elisha, e.g. Gehazi appears in waiting on the king of Israel in 8:5, after the account of his leprosy in 5:27. The terrible siege of Samaria in 2 Kings 7 is generally referred to the reign of Jehoram; but no atmosphere is so suitable to it as that of the reign of Jehoahaz, in one of the later years of whom it may have occurred. The statement in 13:7 that "the king of Syria destroyed them, and made them like the dust in threshing," and the statistics there given of the depleted army of Jehoahaz, would correspond with the state of things that siege implies. In this case the Ben-hadad of 2 Kings 6:24 would be the son of Hazael (13:3).
5. His Idolatry:
Jehoahaz, like his father, maintained the calf-worship in Bethel and Dan, and revived also the cult of the Asherah, a form of Canaanitish idolatry introduced by Ahab (1 Kings 16:33). It centered round a sacred tree or pole, and was probably connected with phallic worship (compare 1 K 15:13, where Maacah, mother of Asa, is said to have "made an abominable image for an Asherah" in Jerusalem).
6. Partial Reform:
The close of this dark reign, however, is brightened by a partial reform. In his distress, we are told, "Jehoahaz besought Yahweh, and Yahweh hearkened unto him" (2 Kings 13:4). If the siege of Samaria in 2 Kings 6 belongs to his reign, we might connect this with his wearing "sackcloth within upon his flesh" (6:30)-an act of humiliation only accidentally discovered by the rending of his garments. 2 Kings 6:5 goes on to say that "Yahweh gave Israel a saviour, so that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians." The "saviour" may refer to Joash, under whom the deliverance began (13:25), or to Jeroboam II, of whom it is declared that by him God "saved" Israel (14:27). Others take it to refer to Ramman-nirari III, king of Assyria, whose conquest of Damascus made possible the victories of these kings.
W. Shaw Caldecott
(2) A king of Judah, son and successor of Josiah; reigned three months and was deposed, 608 B.C. Called "Shallum" in Jeremiah 22:11; compare 1 Chronicles 3:15. The story of his reign is told in 2 Kings 23:30-35, and in a briefer account in 2 Chronicles 36:1-3. The historian o 2 Kings characterizes his reign as evil; 2 Chronicles passes no verdict upon him. On the death of his father in battle, which threw the realm into confusion, he, though a younger son (compare 2 Kings 23:31 with 23:36; 1 Chronicles 3:15 makes him the fourth son of Josiah), was raised to the throne by "the people of the land," the same who had secured the accession to his father; see under JOSIAH. Perhaps, as upholders of the sterling old Davidic idea, which his father had carried out so well, they saw in him a better hope for its integrity than in his elder brother Jehoiakim (Eliakim), whose tyrannical tendencies may already have been too apparent. The prophets also seem to have set store by him, if we may judge by the sympathetic mentions of him in Jeremiah 22:11 and Ezekiel 1:3, 4. His career was too short, however, to make any marked impression on the history of Judah.
Josiah's ill-advised meddling with the designs of Pharaoh-necoh (see under JOSIAH) had had, in fact, the ill effect of plunging Judah again into the vortex of oriental politics, from which it had long been comparatively free. The Egyptian king immediately concluded that so presumptuous a state must not be left in his rear unpunished. Arrived at Riblah on his Mesopotamian expedition, he put Jehoahaz in bonds, and later carried him prisoner to Egypt, where he died; raised his brother Jehoiakim to the throne as a vassal king; and imposed on the realm a fine of a hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. So the fortunes of the Judean state, so soon after Josiah's good reign, began their melancholy change for the worse.
John Franklin Genung
(3) In 2 Chronicles 21:17; 2 Chronicles 25:23 = AHAZIAH, king of Judah (which see) (2 Kings 8:25 2 Chronicles 22:1).
Jehoahaz (22 Occurrences)
2 Kings 10:35 Jehu slept with his fathers; and they buried him in Samaria. Jehoahaz his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:1 In the three and twentieth year of Joash the son of Ahaziah, king of Judah, Jehoahaz the son of Jehu began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned seventeen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:4 Jehoahaz begged Yahweh, and Yahweh listened to him; for he saw the oppression of Israel, how that the king of Syria oppressed them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:7 For he didn't leave to Jehoahaz of the people save fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria destroyed them, and made them like the dust in threshing. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:8 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoahaz, and all that he did, and his might, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:9 Jehoahaz slept with his fathers; and they buried him in Samaria: and Joash his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:10 In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:22 Hazael king of Syria oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:25 Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz took again out of the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael the cities which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father by war. Three times did Joash strike him, and recovered the cities of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:1 In the second year of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel reigned Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah. (KJV DBY WBS YLT NIV)
2 Kings 14:8 Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, "Come, let us look one another in the face." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:17 Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 23:30 His servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. The people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 23:31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 23:34 Pharaoh Necoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and changed his name to Jehoiakim: but he took Jehoahaz away; and he came to Egypt, and died there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 21:17 and they came up against Judah, and broke into it, and carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that there was never a son left him, save Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:17 Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice, and sent to Joash, the son of Jehoahaz the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, Come, let us look one another in the face. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:23 Joash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Joash the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth Shemesh, and brought him to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:25 Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 36:1 Then the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and made him king in his father's place in Jerusalem. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)
2 Chronicles 36:2 Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. (KJV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)
2 Chronicles 36:4 And the king of Egypt made Eliakim his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem, and turned his name to Jehoiakim. And Necho took Jehoahaz his brother, and carried him to Egypt. (KJV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)