|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant of Solomon (2 Chronicles 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when she heard the shout of the people, "Long live the king;" and when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law; but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by Matthew (1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21). (see JOASH .)
(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2 Kings 14:1; Comp. 12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the kingdom was suffering from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael "was cutting Israel short." He tolerated the worship of the golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying, addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof." He was afterwards involved in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah (2 Chronicles 25:23-24), whom he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and the palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria (2 Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (see JOASH [5.]...)
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
je-ho'-ash, the uncontracted form of (yeho'ash, yo'ash, "Yahweh has bestowed"; compare 2 Kings 11:2, 21; 2 Kings 12:1, 19 2 Chronicles 24:1, etc.; Ioas):
(1) The 9th king of Judah; son of Ahaziah and Zibiah, a woman of Beersheba (2 Kings 11-12 2 Chronicles 22:10-24:27). Jehoash was 7 years old at his accession, and reigned 40 years. His accession may be placed in 852 B.C. Some include in the years of his reign the 6 years of Athaliah's usurpation.
I. Ninth King of Judah
1. His Early Preservation:
When, on Athaliah's usurpation of the throne, she massacred the royal princes, Jehoash was saved from her unnatural fury by the action of his aunt Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoiada, the high priest (2 Kings 11:1, 2 2 Chronicles 22:10, 11). During 6 years he was concealed in the house of Jehoiada, which adjoined the temple; hence, is said to have been "hid in the house of Yahweh"-a perfectly legitimate use of the phrase according to the idiom of the time.
2. The Counter-Revolution:
During these formative years of Jehoash's early life, he was under the moral and spiritual influence of Jehoiada-a man of lofty character and devout spirit. At the end of 6 years, a counter-revolution was planned by Jehoiada, and was successfully carried out on a Sabbath, at one of the great festivals. The accounts of this revolution in Kings and Chronicles supplement each other, but though the Levitical interest of the Chronicler is apparent in the details to which he gives prominence, the narratives do not necessarily collide, as has often been represented. The event was prepared for by the young king being privately exhibited to the 5 captains of the "executioners" (the Revised Version (British and American) "Carites") and "runners" (2 Kings 11:4 2 Chronicles 23:1). These entered into covenant with Jehoiada, and, by his direction, summoned the Levites from Judah (2 Chronicles 23:2), and made the necessary arrangements for guarding the palace and the person of the king. In these dispositions both the royal body-guard and the Levites seem to have had their parts. Jehoash next appears standing on a platform in front of the temple, the law of the testimony in his hand and the crown upon his head. Amid acclamations, he is anointed king. Athaliah, rushing on the scene with cries of "treason" (see ATHALIAH), is driven forth and slain. A new covenant is made between Yahweh and the king and people, and, at the conclusion of the ceremony, a great procession is formed, and the king is conducted with honor to the royal house (2 Kings 11:19 2 Chronicles 23:20). Thus auspiciously did the new reign begin.
3. Repair of the Temple:
Grown to manhood (compare the age of his son Amaziah, 2 Kings 14:25), Jehoash married two wives, and by them had sons and daughters (2 Chronicles 24:3). His great concern at this period, however, was the repair of the temple-the "house of Yahweh"-which in the reign of Athaliah had been broken up in many places, plundered, and allowed to become dilapidated (2 Kings 12:5, 12 2 Chronicles 24:7). To meet the expense of its restoration, the king gave orders that all moneys coming into the temple, whether dues or voluntary offerings, should be appropriated for this purpose (2 Kings 12:4), and from the account in Chronicles would seem to have contemplated a revival of the half-shekel tax appointed by Moses for the construction of the tabernacle (2 Chronicles 24:5, 6; compare Exodus 30:11-16; Exodus 38:25). To enforce this impost would have involved a new census, and the memory of the judgments which attended David's former attempt of this kind may well have had a deterrent effect on Jehoiada and the priesthood. "The Levites hastened it not," it is declared (2 Chronicles 24:5).
4. A New Expedient:
Time passed, and in the 23rd year of the king's reign (his 30th year), it was found that the breaches of the house had still not been repaired. A new plan was adopted. It was arranged that a chest with a hole bored in its lid should be set up on the right side of the altar in the temple-court, under the care of two persons, one the king's scribe, the other an officer of the high priest, and that the people should be invited to bring voluntarily their half-shekel tax or other offerings, and put it in this box (2 Kings 12:9 2 Chronicles 24:8, 9). Gifts from worshippers who did not visit the altar were received by priests at the gate, and brought to the box. The expedient proved brilliantly successful. The people cheerfully responded, large sums were contributed, the money was honestly expended, and the temple was thoroughly renovated. There remained even a surplus, with which gold and silver vessels were made, or replaced, for the use of the temple. Jehoiada's long and useful life seems to have closed soon after.
5. The King's Declension:
With the death of this good man, it soon became evident that the strongest pillar of the state was removed. It is recorded that "Jehoash did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him" (2 Kings 12:2), but after Jehoiada had been honorably interred in the sepulchers of the kings (2 Chronicles 24:16), a sad declension became manifest. The princes of Judah came to Jehoash and expressed their wish for greater freedom in worship than had been permitted them by the aged priest. With weak complaisance, the king "hearkened unto them" (2 Chronicles 24:17). Soon idols and Asherahs began to be set up in Jerusalem and the other cities of Judah. Unnamed prophets raised their protests in vain. The high priest Zechariah, a worthy son of Jehoiada, testified in his place that as the nation had forsaken Yahweh, he also would forsake it, and that disaster would follow (2 Chronicles 24:20). Wrathful at the rebuke, the king gave orders that Zechariah should be stoned with stones in the temple-court (2 Chronicles 24:21). This was done, and the act of sacrilege, murder, and ingratitude was perpetrated to which Jesus seems to refer in Matthew 23:35 Luke 11:51 ("son of Barachiah" in the former passage is probably an early copyist's gloss through confusion with the prophet Zechariah).
6. Calamities and Assassination:
The high priest's dying words, "Yahweh look upon it, and require it," soon found an answer. Within a year of Zechariah's death, the armies of Hazael, the Syrian king, were ravaging and laying waste Judah. The city of Gath fell, and a battle, the place of which is not given, placed Jerusalem at the mercy of the foe (2 Kings 12:17 2 Chronicles 24:23, 24). To save the capital from the indignity of foreign occupation, Jehoash, then in dire sickness, collected all the hallowed things of the temple, and all the gold of the palace, and sent them to Hazael (2 Kings 12:17, 18). This failure of his policy, in both church and state, excited such popular feeling against Jehoash, that a conspiracy was formed to assassinate him. His physical sufferings won for him no sympathy, and two of his own officers slew him, while asleep, in the fortress of Millo, where he was paying a visit (2 Kings 12:20). He was buried in the city of David, but not in the royal sepulchers, as Jehoiada had been (2 Chronicles 24:25).
Jehoash is mentioned as the father of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:1 2 Chronicles 25:25). His contemporaries in Israel were Jehoahaz (2 Kings 13:1) and Jehoash (2 Kings 13:10).
(2) The son of Jehoahaz, and 12th king of Israel (2 Kings 13:10-25; 2 Kings 14:8-16 2 Chronicles 25:17-24).
II. Twelveth King of Israel
1. Accession and Reign:
Jehoash reigned for 16 years. His accession may be placed in 813 B.C. There were almost simultaneous changes in the sovereignties of Judah and of Assyria-Amazih succeeding to the throne of Judah in the 2nd year of Jehoash, and Ramman-nirari III coming to the throne of Assyria in 811 B.C.-which had important effects on the history of Israel in this reign.
2. Elisha and Jehoash:
During the three previous reigns, for half a century, Elisha had been the prophet of Yahweh to Israel. He was now aged and on his deathbed. Hearing of his illness, the young king came to Dothan, where the prophet was, and had a touching interview with him. His affectionate exclamation, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 13:14; compare 2:12), casts a pleasing light upon his character. On his lips the words had another meaning than they bore when used by Elish himself at Elijah's translation. Then they referred to the "appearance" which parted Elisha from his master; now they referred to the great service rendered by the prophet to the kingdom. Not only had Elisha repeatedly saved the armies of Israel from the ambushes prepared for them by the Syrians (2 Kings 6:8-23), but he had given assurance of the relief of the capital when it was at its worst extremity (2 Kings 6:24). To Jehoash, Elisha's presence was indeed in place of chariots and horse. The truth was anew demonstrated by the promise which the dying prophet now made to him. Directing Jehoash in the symbolical action of the shooting of certain arrows, he predicted three victories over the Syrians-the first at Aphek, now Fik, on the East of the Lake of Galilee-and more would have been granted, had the faith of the king risen to the opportunity then afforded him (2 Kings 6:15-19).
3. Assyria and Damascus:
An interesting light is thrown by the annals of Assyria on the circumstances which may have made these victories of Jehoash possible. Ramman-nirari III, who succeeded to the throne in 811 B.C., made an expedition against Damascus, Edom and Philistia, in his account of which he says: "I shut up the king (of Syria) in his chief city, Damascus..... He clasped my feet, and gave himself up..... His countless wealth and goods I seized in Damascus." With the Syrian power thus broken during the remainder of this ruler's reign of 27 years, it may be understood how Jehoash should be able to recover, as it is stated he did, the cities which Ben-hadad had taken from his father Jehoahaz (2 Kings 13:25). Schrader and others see in this Assyrian ruler the "saviour" of Israel alluded to in 2 Kings 13:5; more usually the reference is taken to be to Jehoash himself, and to Jeroboam II (compare 2 Kings 14:27).
4. War With Judah:
The epitome of Jehoash's reign is very brief, but the favorable impression formed of him from the acts of Elisha is strengthened by another gained from the history of Amaziah of Judah (2 Kings 14:8-16 2 Chronicles 25:17-24). For the purpose of a southern campaign Amaziah had hired a large contingent of troops from Samaria. Being sent back unemployed, these mercenaries committed ravages on their way home, for which, apparently, no redress was given. On the first challenge of the king of Judah, Jehoash magnanimously refused the call to arms, but on Amaziah persisting, the peace established nearly 80 years before by Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:44) was broken at the battle of Beth-shemesh, in which Amaziah was defeated and captured. Jerusalem opened its gates to the victor, and was despoiled of all its treasure, both of palace and temple. A portion of the wall was broken down, and hostages for future behavior were taken to Samaria (2 Kings 14:13, 14).
Jehoash did not long survive his crowning victory, but left a resuscitated state, and laid the foundation for a subsequent rule which raised Israel to the zenith of its power. Josephus gives Jehoash a high character for godliness, but, like each of his predecessors, he followed in the footsteps of Jeroboam I in permitting, if not encouraging, the worship of the golden calves. Hence, his conduct is pronounced "evil" by the historian (2 Kings 13:11). He was succeeded by his son Jeroboam II.
W. Shaw Caldecott
Jehoash (28 Occurrences)
2 Kings 11:21 Jehoash was seven years old when he began to reign. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:1 In the seventh year of Jehu began Jehoash to reign; and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Zibiah of Beersheba. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:2 Jehoash did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh all his days in which Jehoiada the priest instructed him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:4 Jehoash said to the priests, "All the money of the holy things that is brought into the house of Yahweh, in current money, the money of the persons for whom each man is rated, and all the money that it comes into any man's heart to bring into the house of Yahweh, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:6 But it was so, that in the three and twentieth year of king Jehoash the priests had not repaired the breaches of the house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:7 Then king Jehoash called for Jehoiada the priest, and for the other priests, and said to them, "Why don't you repair the breaches of the house? Now therefore take no more money from your treasurers, but deliver it for the breaches of the house." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 12:18 Jehoash king of Judah took all the holy things that Jehoshaphat and Jehoram and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own holy things, and all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of Yahweh, and of the king's house, and sent it to Hazael king of Syria: and he went away from Jerusalem. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:9 And Jehoahaz slept with his fathers; and they buried him in Samaria; and Joash his son reigned in his stead. (See NIV)
2 Kings 13:10 In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:12 Now the rest of the acts of Joash, and all that he did, and his might with which he fought against Amaziah king of Judah, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (See NIV)
2 Kings 13:13 Joash slept with his fathers; and Jeroboam sat on his throne: and Joash was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel. (See NIV)
2 Kings 13:14 Now Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness of which he died: and Joash the king of Israel came down to him, and wept over him, and said, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and its horsemen!" (See NIV)
2 Kings 13:25 Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz took again out of the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael the cities which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father by war. Three times did Joash strike him, and recovered the cities of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:8 Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, "Come, let us look one another in the face." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:9 Jehoash the king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, "The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying,'Give your daughter to my son as wife. Then wild animal that was in Lebanon passed by, and trampled down the thistle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:11 But Amaziah would not listen. So Jehoash king of Israel went up; and he and Amaziah king of Judah looked one another in the face at Beth Shemesh, which belongs to Judah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:13 Jehoash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth Shemesh, and came to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:15 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoash which he did, and his might, and how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:16 Jehoash slept with his fathers, and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel; and Jeroboam his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:17 Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:23 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years. (See NIV)
2 Kings 14:27 and Jehovah hath not spoken to blot out the name of Israel from under the heavens, and saveth them by the hand of Jeroboam son of Joash. (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:17 Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice, and sent to Joash, the son of Jehoahaz the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying: 'Come, let us look one another in the face.' (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:20 But Amaziah would not hear; for it was of God, that he might deliver them into the hand of their enemies, because they had sought after the gods of Edom. (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:23 And Joash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Joash, the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth-shemesh, and brought him to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim unto the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:25 And Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (See NIV)
Hosea 1:1 A word of Jehovah that hath been unto Hosea, son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel: (See NIV)
Amos 1:1 The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake. (See NIV)