|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matthew 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Samuel 17:12). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isaiah 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isaiah 11:10; Revelation 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Samuel 17:17, 18, 20; Psalm 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22:3).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) Any representation or suggestion of the genealogy of Christ, in decorative art
2. (n.) A genealogical tree represented in stained glass.
3. (n.) A candlestick with many branches, each of which bears the name of some one of the descendants of Jesse; -- called also tree of Jesse.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
jes'-e (yishay, meaning doubtful; according to Gesenius it = "wealthy"; Olshausen, Gram., sections 277, conjectures yesh yah, "Yahweh exists"; Wellhausen (1 Samuel 14:49) explains it as 'abhishay (see ABISHAI); Iessai; Ruth 4:17, 22 1 Samuel 16; 1 Samuel 17; 20; 22; 25:10:00; 2 Samuel 20:1; 2 Samuel 23:1 1 Kings 12:16; 1 Chronicles 10:14; 1 Chronicles 12:18 Psalm 72:20 Isaiah 11:1, 10 (= Romans 15:12)); Matthew 1:5, 6 Acts 13:22): Son of Obed, grandson of Boaz, and father of King David. The grouping of the references to Jesse in 1 Samuel is bound up with that of the grouping of the whole narrative of David and Saul. See SAMUEL, BOOKS OF. There seem to be three main veins in the narrative, so far as Jesse is concerned.
(1) In 1 Samuel 16:1-13, where Jesse is called the Bethlehemite. Samuel is sent to seek among Jesse's sons successor to Saul.
Both Samuel and Jesse fail to discern at first Yahweh's choice, Samuel thinking that it would be the eldest son (1 Samuel 16:6), while Jesse had not thought it worth while to call the youngest to the feast (1 Samuel 16:11).
(2) (a) In 1 Samuel 16:14-23, Saul is mentally disturbed, and is advised to get a harpist. David "the son of Jesse the Bethlehemite" is recommended by a courtier, and Saul sends to Jesse for David.
"And Jesse took ten loaves (so emend and translate, and not as the Revised Version (British and American), "an ass laden with bread"), and a (skin) bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them" to Saul as a present with David, who becomes a courtier of Saul's with his father's consent.
(b) The next mention of Jesse is in three contemptuous references by Saul to David as "the son of Jesse" in 1 Samuel 20:27, 30, 31, part of the quarrel-scene between Saul and Jonathan. (But it is not quite certain if 1 Samuel 20 belongs to the same source as 16:14-23.) In answer to the first reference, Jonathan calls his friend "David," and Saul repeats the phrase "the son of Jesse," abusing Jonathan personally (1 Samuel 20:30, where the meaning is uncertain). The reference to David as "the son of Jesse" here and in the following verse is contemptuous, not because of any reproach that might attach itself to Jesse, but, as Budde remarks, because "an upstart is always contemptuously referred to under his father's name" in courts and society. History repeats itself!
(c) Further references of a like kind are in the passage, 1 Samuel 22:6-23, namely, in 22:7, 8, 13 by Saul, and repeated by Doeg in 22:9.
(d) The final one of this group is in 1 Samuel 25:10, where Nabal sarcastically asks "Who is David ? and who is the son of Jesse?"
(3) The parts of 1 Samuel 17-18:5 which are omitted by Septuagint B, i.e. 17:12-31, 41, 48b, 50, 55-18:6a. Here Jesse is mentioned as "an Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah" (17:12, not "that" Ephrathite, which is a grammatically impossible translation of the Massoretic Text), Ephrath or Ephrathah being another name for Bethlehem, or rather for the district. He is further said to have eight sons (17:12), of whom the three eldest had followed Saul to the war (17:13).
Jesse sends David, the shepherd, to his brothers with provisions (1 Samuel 17:17). Afterward David, on being brought to Saul and asked who he is, answers, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite" (1 Samuel 17:58). Jesse is also described (1 Samuel 17:12) as being "in the days of Saul an old man, advanced in years" (so emend and translate, not as the Revised Version (British and American), "stricken in years among men"). The mention of his having 8 sons in 1 Samuel 17:12 is not in agreement with 1 Chronicles 2:13-15, which gives only 7 sons with two sisters, but where Syriac gives 8, adding, from 27:18, Elihu which Massoretic Text has there probably by corruption (Curtis, Chronicles, 88). 1 Samuel 16:10 should be translated" and Jesse made his 7 sons to pass before Samuel" (not as the Revised Version (British and American), the King James Version, "seven of his sons"). Budde (Kurz. Hand-Komm., "Samuel," 114) holds 1 Samuel 16:1-13 to be a late Midrash, and (ibid., 123) omits
(a) "that" in 17:12;
(b) also "and he had 8 sons" as due to a wrong inference from 16:10;
(c) the names of the 3 eldest in 17:13;
(d) 17:14b; he then changes 17:15a, and reads thus: (12) "Now David was the son of an Ephrathite of Bethlehem-Judah, whose name was Jesse who was.... (years) old at the time of Saul. (13) And the 3 eldest sons of Jesse had marched with Saul to the war, (14) and David was the youngest, (15) and David had remained to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem. (16) Now the Philistines came," etc.
According to all these narratives in 1 Samuel, whether all 3 be entirely independent of one another or not, Jesse had land in Bethlehem, probably outside the town wall, like Boaz (see BOAZ) his grandfather (Ruth 4:17). In 1 Samuel 22:3, 1 David entrusts his father and mother to the care of the king of Moab, but from 20:29 some have inferred that Jesse was dead (although most critics assign 22:3 at any rate to the same stratum as chapter 20).
Jonathan tells Saul that David wanted to attend a family sacrificial feast at Bethlehem (1 Samuel 20:29). Massoretic Text reads, "And he, my brother, has commanded me," whereas we should probably read with Septuagint, "and my brethren have commanded me," i.e. the members of the clan, as we have farther on in the verse, "Let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren." As to Jesse's daughters, see ABIGAIL; NAHASH.
(4) Of the other references to Jesse, the most noteworthy is that in Isaiah 11:1: "There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit," i.e. out of Jesse's roots (compare Revelation 5:5). "Why Jesse and not David?" asks Duhm; and he answers, "Because the Messiah will be a second David, rather than a descendant of David." Marti explains it to mean that he will be, not from David, but from a collateral line of descent. Duhm's explanation suggests a parallelism between David and Christ, of whom the former may be treated as a type similar to Aaron and Melchizedek in He. Saul might pour contempt upon "the son of Jesse," but Isaiah has given Jesse here a name above all Hebrew names, and thus does Providence mock "society."
See also ROOT OF JESSE.
David Francis Roberts
ROOT OF JESSE
(shoresh yishay (Isaiah 11:10); rhiza tou Iessai (Romans 15:12)): The Hebrew and Greek words are practically the same in meaning. "Root" means descendant, branch of the family or stock. The Messianic king was to be of the family of Jesse the father of David. In Romans 15:12 Paul quotes the Septuagint of Isaiah 11:10. Jesus is a branch or descendant of the family of Jesse, as well as of David.
See also DAVID, ROOT OF.
Jesse (45 Occurrences)
Matthew 1:5 Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 1:6 Jesse became the father of King David. David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:32 the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:22 When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified,'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 15:12 Again, Isaiah says, "There will be the root of Jesse, he who arises to rule over the Gentiles; in him the Gentiles will hope." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ruth 4:17 The women, her neighbors, gave him a name, saying, "There is a son born to Naomi;" and they named him Obed. He is the father of Jesse, the father of David. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ruth 4:22 and Obed became the father of Jesse, and Jesse became the father of David. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:1 Yahweh said to Samuel, "How long will you mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil, and go. I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite; for I have provided a king for myself among his sons." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:3 Call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do. You shall anoint to me him whom I name to you." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:5 He said, "Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to Yahweh. Sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice." He sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:8 Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. He said, "Neither has Yahweh chosen this one." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:9 Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. He said, "Neither has Yahweh chosen this one." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:10 Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. Samuel said to Jesse, "Yahweh has not chosen these." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:11 Samuel said to Jesse, "Are all your children here?" He said, "There remains yet the youngest, and behold, he is keeping the sheep." Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and get him; for we will not sit down until he comes here." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:18 Then one of the young men answered, and said, "Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, who is skillful in playing, a mighty man of valor, a man of war, prudent in speech, and a comely person; and Yahweh is with him." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:19 Therefore Saul sent messengers to Jesse, and said, "Send me David your son, who is with the sheep." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:20 Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a young goat, and sent them by David his son to Saul. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:22 Saul sent to Jesse, saying, "Please let David stand before me; for he has found favor in my sight." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:12 Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man was an old man in the days of Saul, stricken in years among men. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:13 The three eldest sons of Jesse had gone after Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons who went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next to him Abinadab, and the third Shammah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:17 Jesse said to David his son, "Now take for your brothers an ephah of this parched grain, and these ten loaves, and carry them quickly to the camp to your brothers; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:20 David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the place of the wagons, as the army which was going forth to the fight shouted for the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:58 Saul said to him, "Whose son are you, you young man?" David answered, "I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 20:27 It happened on the next day after the new moon, the second day, that David's place was empty. Saul said to Jonathan his son, "Why doesn't the son of Jesse come to eat, neither yesterday, nor today?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 20:30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, "You son of a perverse rebellious woman, don't I know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame, and to the shame of your mother's nakedness? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 20:31 For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, you shall not be established, nor your kingdom. Therefore now send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 22:7 Saul said to his servants who stood about him, "Hear now, you Benjamites! Will the son of Jesse give everyone of you fields and vineyards, will he make you all captains of thousands and captains of hundreds, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 22:8 that all of you have conspired against me, and there is none who discloses to me when my son makes a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you who is sorry for me, or discloses to me that my son has stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 22:9 Then Doeg the Edomite, who stood by the servants of Saul, answered and said, "I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 22:13 Saul said to him, "Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, in that you have given him bread, and a sword, and have inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 25:10 Nabal answered David's servants, and said, "Who is David? Who is the son of Jesse? There are many servants who break away from their masters these days. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 17:25 And Absalom put Amasa at the head of the army in place of Joab. Now Amasa was the son of a man named Ithra the Ishmaelite, who had been the lover of Abigail, the daughter of Jesse, sister of Zeruiah, Joab's mother. (BBE)
2 Samuel 20:1 There happened to be there a base fellow, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew the trumpet, and said, "We have no portion in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse. Every man to his tents, Israel!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 23:1 Now these are the last words of David. David the son of Jesse says, the man who was raised on high says, the anointed of the God of Jacob, the sweet psalmist of Israel: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 12:16 When all Israel saw that the king didn't listen to them, the people answered the king, saying, "What portion have we in David? Neither do we have an inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, Israel! Now see to your own house, David." So Israel departed to their tents. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 2:12 and Boaz became the father of Obed, and Obed became the father of Jesse; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 2:13 and Jesse became the father of his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 10:14 and didn't inquire of Yahweh: therefore he killed him, and turned the kingdom to David the son of Jesse. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 12:18 Then the Spirit came on Amasai, who was chief of the thirty, and he said, "We are yours, David, and on your side, you son of Jesse: peace, peace be to you, and peace be to your helpers; for your God helps you." Then David received them, and made them captains of the band. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 29:26 Now David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 10:16 When all Israel saw that the king didn't listen to them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to your tents, Israel: now see to your own house, David. So all Israel departed to their tents. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 11:18 Rehoboam took him a wife, Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David, and of Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 72:20 This ends the prayers by David, the son of Jesse. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 11:1 A shoot will come out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots will bear fruit. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 11:10 It will happen in that day that the nations will seek the root of Jesse, who stands as a banner of the peoples; and his resting place will be glorious. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)