|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Revelation 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Revelation 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isaiah 6:3-5), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Revelation 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Live.
2. (n.) The state of one who, or that which, lives; lives; life; existence.
3. (n.) Manner of life; as, riotous living; penurious living; earnest living.
4. (n.) Means of subsistence; sustenance; estate.
5. (n.) Power of continuing life; the act of living, or living comfortably.
6. (n.) The benefice of a clergyman; an ecclesiastical charge which a minister receives.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(chayyah; zoon): "Living creature" (chayyah) is the designation of each of the composite figures in Ezekiel's visions (Ezekiel 1:5, 13; Ezekiel 3:13; Ezekiel 10:15, 17, 20) and, the Revised Version (British and American), of the similar beings in the visions of the Apocalypse, instead of the extremely unfortunate translation of zoon in the King James Version by "beasts" (Revelation 4:6; Revelation 5:6; 6:1; 7:11; 14:03; 15:07; 19:4), which, however, went back to Wycliff, in whose time the word had not the low meaning which "beast," "beastly" have with us; hence, he translates 1 Corinthians 15:44, "It is sowen beestli body," meaning simply animal (see Trench's Select Glossary); in Re "the beasts of the earth," the "beasts" that came up, the notable "beast" that men worshipped, represent the Greek therion, "a wild beast."
The "living creatures" in Ezekiel's vision (Ezekiel 1:5) were four in number, "with the general appearance of a man, but each with four faces and four wings, and straight legs with the feet of an ox. Under their wings are human hands, and these wings are so joined that they never require to turn. The front face is that of a man; right and left of this are the faces of a lion and (of) an ox, and behind, that of an eagle. out of the midst of them gleam fire, torches, lightnings, and connected with them are four wheels that can turn in every direction, called whirling wheels (Ezekiel 10:12, 13). Like the creatures, these are alive, covered with eyes, the sign of intelligence; the spirit of the living creatures is in them. They are afterward discovered by the prophet to be cherubim" (Schultz, Old Testament Theology, II, 233). See CHERUBIM. In Ezekiel's vision they seem to be the bearers of the throne and glory of God; the bearers of His presence and of His revelation (Ezekiel 9:3; Ezekiel 10:3). They also sound forth His praise (Ezekiel 3:12; Ezekiel 10:2). (See Schultz as above.)
The four living creatures in Revelation 4:6 are not under the throne but "in the midst of the throne" (the American Revised Version, margin "before"; see Revelation 7:17; compare Revelation 5:6) and "round about the throne." They are also cherubim, and seem to represent the four beings that stand at the head of the four divisions of the creation; among the untamed animals the lion; among cattle the calf or ox; among birds the eagle; among all created beings the man. It gives "a perfect picture of true service, which should be as brave as the lion, patient as the ox, aspiring as the eagle, intelligent as man" (Milligan in the place cited.). They represent the powers of Nature-of the creation, "full of eyes" as denoting its permeation with the Divine Reason, the wings signifying its constant, ready service, and the unceasing praise the constant doing of God's will. The imagery is founded on Ezekiel as that had been modified in apocalyptic writings and as it was exalted in the mind of the Seer of Patmos.
W. L. Walker
liv'-li, liv'-ing (chay; zao): "Living," sometimes "lively," is the translation of chay (often also translated "life"); it denotes all beings possessed of life (Genesis 1:21, 24; Genesis 2:7, 19 Exodus 21:35, "live"); we have frequently the phrase, "the land of the living" (as contrasted with she'ol, the abode of the dead), e.g. Job 28:13 Psalm 27:13; Psalm 52:5 Isaiah 38:11; the characteristically Biblical expression, "the living God," also frequently occurs (Joshua 3:10 1 Samuel 17:26, 36 2 Kings 19:4 Psalm 84:2); also frequently in the New Testament as the translation of zao (Matthew 16:16; Matthew 26:63 John 6:57, "the living Father"; Acts 14:15); "lively" in Exodus 1:19 (chayeh) and Psalm 38:19 denotes fullness of life, vigor; chayyah, "a living being," is mostly confined to Ezekiel, translated "living creatures" (1:5, 13, 14, etc.), also Genesis 1:28; Genesis 8:17, "living thing"; "living" is sometimes applied figuratively to that which is not actually alive; thus we have the phrase "living waters" (Jeremiah 2:13; Jeremiah 17:13 Zechariah 14:8, "Living waters shall go out from Jerusalem") in contrast with stagnant waters-waters that can give life; so John 4:10, 11 (bubbling up from the spring at bottom of the well); 7:38; Revelation 7:17 the King James Version; "living bread" (John 6:51); a new and living way (Hebrews 10:20), perhaps equivalent to "ever-living" in Christ; "living stones" (1 Peter 2:4, 5) are those made alive in Christ; a "living hope" (a hope full of life), 1 Peter 1:3; "living" (zao)is sometimes also "manner of life" (Luke 15:13 Colossians 2:20); diago, "to lead or go through," is also so translated (Titus 3:3); bios is "means of life," translated "living" (Mark 12:44 Luke 8:43); "living," in this sense, occurs in Apocrypha as the translation of zoe, "Defraud not the poor of his living" (Ecclesiasticus 4:1).
The Revised Version (British and American) has "living" for "alive" (Leviticus 14:4), for "the lively" (Acts 7:38), for "quick" (Hebrews 4:12), for "lively" (1 Peter 1:3; 1 Peter 2:5), for "conversation" (1 Peter 1:15 2 Peter 3:11); "living creatures" for "beasts" (Revelation 4:6; Revelation 5:6, etc.); "every living thing" for "all the substance" (Deuteronomy 11:6); "living things" for "beasts" (Leviticus 11:2, 47 twice); for "living" (Psalm 58:9), "the green" (thorns under the pots), margin "Wrath shall take them away while living as with a whirlwind"; for "the book of the living" (Psalm 69:28), "the book of life"; for "(I am) he that liveth" (Revelation 1:18), "the Living one"; for "living fountains of waters" (Revelation 7:17), "fountains of waters of life"; for "trade" (Revelation 18:17), "gain their living," margin "work the sea"; for "Son of the living God" (John 6:69), "the Holy One of God" (emended text).
W. L. Walker
(1) (nephesh chayyah, or nephesh hachayyah (nephesh, "breath" or "living things"; chayyah, "living"; compare Arabic nefs, "breath," chaiy, "living")): In the account of the creation this term is used of aquatic animals (Genesis 1:21), of mammals (Genesis 1:24) and of any animals whatsoever (Genesis 2:19).
(2) ([chayyoth], plural of chayyah): The name of the "living creatures" of Ezekiel 1:5-25, which had wings and the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle; compare Ezekiel 10:1-22.
(3) (zoon, "living thing," "animal"): The four "living creatures" (the King James Version "beasts") of Revelation 4:6, etc., the first like a lion, the second like a calf, the third having a face as of a man, and the fourth like an eagle, having each six wings.
See CREATURE, LIVING.
Alfred Ely Day
Living (3112 Occurrences)
Living is used 3112 times in 12 translations.
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