|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The Hebrews kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who offers sacrifices.
At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own sacrifices before God. Afterwards that office devolved on the head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Genesis 8:20), Abraham (12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5).
The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek (Genesis 14:18). Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood was limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that tribe, the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the qualifications of priests are given in Leviticus 21:16-23. There are ordinances also regarding the priests' dress (Exodus 28:40-43) and the manner of their consecration to the office (29:1-37).
Their duties were manifold (Exodus 27:20, 21; 29:38-44; Leviticus 6:12; 10:11; 24:8; Numbers 10:1-10; Deuteronomy 17:8-13; 33:10; Malachi 2:7). They represented the people before God, and offered the various sacrifices prescribed in the law.
In the time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four courses or classes (1 Chronicles 24:7-18). This number was retained after the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Nehemiah 7:39-42).
"The priests were not distributed over the country, but lived together in certain cities [forty-eight in number, of which six were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been assigned to their use. From thence they went up by turns to minister in the temple at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction of the people in the country generally was left to the heads of families, until the establishment of synagogues, an event which did not take place till the return from the Captivity, and which was the main source of the freedom from idolatry that became as Marked a feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had been hitherto their great national sin."
The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a shadow of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured the great Priest who offered "one sacrifice for sins" "once for all" (Hebrews 10:10, 12). There is now no human priesthood. (See Epistle to the Hebrews throughout.) The term "priest" is indeed applied to believers (1 Peter 2:9; Revelation 1:6), but in these cases it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true believers are now "kings and priests unto God." As priests they have free access into the holiest of all, and offer up the sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of grateful service from day to day.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A presbyter elder; a minister
2. (n.) One who is authorized to consecrate the host and to say Mass; but especially, one of the lowest order possessing this power.
3. (n.) A presbyter; one who belongs to the intermediate order between bishop and deacon. He is authorized to perform all ministerial services except those of ordination and confirmation.
4. (n.) One who officiates at the altar, or performs the rites of sacrifice; one who acts as a mediator between men and the divinity or the gods in any form of religion; as, Buddhist priests.
5. (v. t.) To ordain as priest.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
BREASTPLATE OF THE HIGH PRIEST
prest: The Hebrew word choshen, rendered in the King James Version "breastplate," means really a "pouch" or "bag." The references to it are found exclusively in the Priestly Code (Exodus 25:7; Exodus 28; Exodus 28 29:5; Exodus 28 35:9, 27 Leviticus 8:8). The descriptions of its composition and particularly the directions with regard to wearing it are exceedingly obscure. According to Ezra 2:63 and Nehemiah 7:65 the Urim and Thummim, which were called in the priestly pouch, were lost during the Babylonian exile. The actual pouch was a "span in length and a span in breadth," i.e. about 9 inch square. It was made, like the ephod, of "gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen" (Exodus 28:15 f). In it were twelve precious stones, in rows of four, representing the twelve tribes of Israel. Apparently the pouch had two rings (perhaps four) through which passed two gold chains by which it was fastened to the ephod supplied for the purpose with ouches or clasps. The pouch was worn by the high priest over his heart when he entered the "holy place" "for a memorial before Yahweh." The presence of the high priest, the representative of the people, with the names of the separate tribes on his person, brought each tribe before the notice of Yahweh and thereby directed His attention to them. The full designation was choshen mishpaT, "pouch of judgment" or "decision." It was the distinctive symbol of the priest in his capacity as the giver of oracles. As already suggested the priestly pouch contained the Urim and Thummim which were probably precious stones used as lots in giving decisions. In all probability the restored text of 1 Samuel 14:41 preserves the true custom. On one side stood Saul and Jonathan, and the people on the other side. If the result was Urim, Saul and Jonathan would be the guilty parties. If the result was Thummim, the guilt would fasten on the people.
prest (kohen, "priest," "prince," "minister"; hiereus archiereus; for hiereus megas, of Hebrews 10:21, see Thayer's Lexicon, under the word hiereus):
I. NATURE OF THE PRIESTLY OFFICE
1. Implies Divine Choice
2. Implies Representation
3. Implies Offering Sacrifice
4. Implies Intercession
II. THE TWO GREAT PRIESTS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, MELCHIZEDEK AND AARON
III. PRIESTLY FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTER
1. A Strictly Religious Order
2. Priestism Denied
3. The High Priest's Qualifications
4. Symbolism of Aaron's Rod
IV. CONSECRATION OF AARON AND HIS SONS (EXODUS 29; LEVITICUS 8)
1. Symbolism of Consecration
2. Type and Archetype
A priest is one who is duly authorized to minister in sacred things, particularly to offer sacrifices at the altar, and who acts as mediator between men and God. In the New Testament the term is applied to priests of the Gentiles (Acts 14:13), to those of the Jews (Matthew 8:4), to Christ (Hebrews 5:5, 6), and to Christians (1 Peter 2:9 Revelation 1:6). The office of priest in Israel was of supreme importance and of high rank. The high priest stood next the monarch in influence and dignity. Aaron, the head of the priestly order, was closely associated with the great lawgiver, Moses, and shared with him in the government and guidance of the nation. It was in virtue of the priestly functions that the chosen people were brought into near relations with God and kept therein. Through the ministrations of the priesthood the people of Israel were instructed in the doctrine of sin and its expiation, in forgiveness and worship. In short, the priest was the indispensable source of religious knowledge for the people, and the channel through which spiritual life was communicated.
I. Nature of the Priestly Office.
1. Implies Divine Choice:
The Scriptures furnish information touching this point. To them we at once turn. Priesthood implies choice. Not only was the office of divine institution, but the priest himself was divinely-appointed thereto. "For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God..... And no man taketh the honor unto himself, but when he is called of God, even as was Aaron" (Hebrews 5:1, 4). The priest was not elected by the people, much less was he self-appointed. Divine selection severed him from those for whom he was to act. Even our Great High Priest, Jesus Christ, came not into the world unsent. He received His commission and His authority from the fountain of all sovereignty. At the opening of His earthly ministry He said, "He anointed me..... He hath sent me" (Luke 4:18). He came bearing heavenly credentials.
2. Implies Representation:
It implies the principle of representation. The institution of the office was God's gracious provision for a people at a distance from Him, who needed one to appear in the divine presence in their behalf. The high priest was to act for men in things pertaining to God, "to make propitiation for the sins of the people" (Hebrews 2:17). He was the mediator who ministered for the guilty. "The high priest represented the whole people. All Israelites were reckoned as being in him. The prerogative held by him belonged to the whole of them (Exodus 19:6), but on this account it was transferred to him because it was impossible that all Israelites should keep themselves holy as became the priests of Yahweh" (Vitringa). That the high priest did represent the whole congregation appears, first, from his bearing the tribal names on his shoulders in the onyx stones, and, second, in the tribal names engraved in the twelve gems of the breastplate. The divine explanation of this double representation of Israel in the dress of the high priest is, he "shall bear their names before Yahweh upon his two shoulders for a memorial" (Exodus 28:12, 19). Moreover, his committing heinous sin involved the people in his guilt: "If the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people" (Leviticus 4:3). The Septuagint reads, "If the anointed priest shall sin so as to make the people sin." The anointed priest, of course, is the high priest. When he sinned the people sinned. His official action was reckoned as their action. The whole nation shared in the trespass of their representative. The converse appears to be just as true. What he did in his official capacity, as prescribed by the Lord, was reckoned as done by the whole congregation: "Every high priest.... is appointed for men" (Hebrews 5:1).
3. Implies Offering Sacrifice:
It implies the offering of sacrifice. Nothing is clearer in Scripture than this priestly function. It was the chief duty of a priest to reconcile men to God by making atonement for their sins; and this he effected by means of sacrifice, blood-shedding (Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 8:3). He would be no priest who should have nothing to offer. It was the high priest who carried the blood of the sin offering into the Most Holy Place and who sprinkled it seven times on and before the mercy-seat, thus symbolically covering the sins of the people from the eyes of the Lord who dwelt between the cherubim (Psalm 80:1). It was he also who marked the same blood on the horns of the altar of burnt offering in the Court of the Tabernacle, and on those of the golden altar, that the red sign of propitiation might thus be lifted up in the sight of Yahweh, the righteous Judge and Redeemer.
4. Implies Intercession:
It implies intercession. In the priestly ministry of Aaron and his sons this function is not so expressly set forth as are some of their other duties, but it is certainly included. For intercession is grounded in atonement. There can be no effective advocacy on behalf of the guilty until their guilt is righteously expiated. The sprinkling of the blood on the mercy-seat served to cover the guilt from the face of God, and at the same time it was an appeal to Him to pardon and accept His people. So we read that after Aaron had sprinkled the blood he came forth from the sanctuary and blessed Israel (Leviticus 9:22-24 Numbers 6:22-27).
II. The Two Great Priests of the Old Testament, Melchizedek and Aaron:
These were Melchizedek and Aaron. No others that ever bore the name or discharged the office rank with these, save, of course, the Lord Jesus Christ, of whom they were distinguished types. Of the two, Melchizedek was the greater. There are two reasons why they are to be considered chiefs: first, because they are first in their respective orders. Melchizedek was not only the head of his order, but he had no successor. The office began and terminated with him (Hebrews 7:3). The ordinary priests and the Levites depended for their official existence on Aaron. Apart from him they would not be priests. Second, the priesthood of Christ was typified by both. The office is summed up and completed in Him. They were called and consecrated that they might be prophecies of Him who was to come and in whom all priesthood and offering and intercession would find its ample fulfillment. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the priesthood of both these men is combined and consummated in Christ. But let it be noted that while He is of the order of Melchizedek He exercises the office after the pattern of Aaron. He perfects all that Aaron did typically, because He is the true and the real Priest, while Aaron is but a figure.
III. Priestly Functions and Character.
1. A Strictly Religious Order:
These are minutely prescribed in the Law. In the institution of the office the Lord's words to Moses were, "Take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office" (Exodus 28:1 the King James Version). Their duties were strictly religious. They had no political power conferred upon them. Their services, their dependent position, and the way in which they were sustained, i.e. by the free gifts of the people, precluded them from exercising any undue influence in the affairs of the nation. It is true that in process of time the high office degenerated, and became a thing of barter and sale in the hands of unscrupulous and corrupt men, but as originally appointed the priesthood in Israel was not a caste, nor a hierarchy, nor a political factor, but a divinely-appointed medium of communication between God and the people.
2. Priestism Denied:
The Hebrew priests in no wise interfered with the conscience of men. The Hebrew worshipper of his own free will laid his hand on the head of his sacrifice, and confessed his sins to God alone. His conscience was quite free and untrammeled.
3. The High Priest's Qualifications:
There were certain duties which were peculiar to the high priest. He alone could wear the "garments for glory and for beauty." To him alone it pertained to enter the Most Holy Place and to sprinkle the blood of the sin offering on the mercy-seat. To him alone it pertained to represent the congregation before the Lord as mediator, and to receive the divine communications. He was to be ceremonially pure and holy. He must be physically perfect. Any defect or deformity disqualified a member of the priestly family from performing the duties of the office (Leviticus 21:17-21). The Law spoke with the utmost precision as to the domestic relations of the high priest. He could marry neither a widow, nor a divorced woman, nor one polluted, nor a harlot; only a virgin of his own people, a Hebrew of pure extraction, could become his wife (Leviticus 21:14, 15). Nor was he to come in contact with death. He must not rend his clothes, nor defile himself, even for his father or his mother (Leviticus 21:10, 11). His sons might defile themselves for their kin, but the high priest must not. For he was the representative of life. Death did not exist for him, in so far as he was a priest. God is the Ever-Living, the Life-Giving; and His priest, who had "the crown of the anointing oil of his God upon him," had to do with life alone.
4. Symbolism of Aaron's Rod:
Adolph Saphir believes there is deep significance in the miracle of Aaron's rod that budded and bare almonds (Numbers 17). It was a visible sign of the legitimacy of Aaron's priesthood and a confirmation of it, and a symbol of its vitality and fruitfulness. The twelve rods of the tribes were dead sticks of wood, and remained dead; Aaron's alone had life and produced blossoms and fruit. It was the emblem of his office which correlated itself with life, and had nothing to do with death.
IV. Consecration of Aaron and His Sons (Exodus 29; Leviticus 8).
The process of the consecration is minutely described and is worthy of a more detailed and careful study than can here be given it. Only the more prominent features are noticed.
(1) Both the high priest and his sons were together washed with water (Exodus 29:4). But when this was done, the high priest parted company with his sons.
(2) Next, Aaron was arrayed in the holy and beautiful garments, with the breastplate over his heart, and the holy crown on his head, the mitre, or turban, with its golden plate bearing the significant inscription, "Holy to Yahweh." This was Aaron's investiture of the high office.
(3) He was then anointed with the precious oil. It is noteworthy that Moses poured the oil on his head. When he anointed the tabernacle and its furniture he sprinkled the oil, but in Aaron's case there was a profusion, an abundance in the anointing (Psalm 133:2).
(4) After the anointing of the high priest the appointed sacrifices were offered (Exodus 29:10). Up to this point in the ceremony Aaron was the principal figure, the sons having no part save in the bathing. But after the offerings had been made the sons became prominent participants in the ceremonies, sharing equally with the high priest therein.
(5) The blood of the offering was applied to the person of father and sons alike (Exodus 29:20, 21). On the tip of the right ear, on the thumb of the right hand, and on the great toe of the right foot was the consecrating blood-mark set.
1. Symbolism of Consecration:
The significance of this action should not escape the reader. The whole person and career of the priest were thus brought under power of the blood. He had a blood-stained ear that he might hear and obey the divine injunctions, that he might understand the word of Yahweh and interpret it to the people. His will was brought into subjection to the will of His Lord that he might be a faithful minister in things pertaining to God. He had a blood-stained hand that he might execute, rightly and efficiently, the services of the sanctuary and the duties of his great office. He had likewise a blood-stained foot that he might walk in the statutes and commandments of the Lord blameless, and tread the courts of the Lord's house as the obedient servant of the Most High. Sacrificial blood, the blood of atonement, is here, as everywhere else, the foundation for saints and sinners, for priests and ministers alike, in all their relations with God.
2. Type and Archetype:
The priests of Israel were but dim shadows, obscure sketches and drafts of the one Great Priest of God, the Lord Jesus Christ. Without drawing out at length the parallelism between the type and the archetype, we may sum up in a few brief sentences the perfection found in the priestly character of Christ:
(1) Christ as Priest is appointed of God (Hebrews 5:5). (2) He is consecrated with an oath (Hebrews 7:20-22).
(3) He is sinless (Hebrews 7:26).
(4) His priesthood is unchangeable (Hebrews 7:23, 24).
(5) His offering is perfect and final (Hebrews 9:25-28; Hebrews 10:12).
(6) His intercession is all-prevailing (Hebrews 7:25).
(7) As God and man in one Person He is a perfect Mediator (Hebrews 1; Hebrews 2).
SeeCHRIST, OFFICES OF, sec. V.
Smith, DB; HDB; P. Fairbairn, Typology of Scripture, II; Soltau, Exposition of the Tabernacle; the Priestly Garments and the Priesthood; Martin, Atonement; A.B. Davidson, Hebrews; Moorehead, Mosaic Institutions.
William G. Moorehead
(ha-kohen, ho hiereus; ha-kohen ha-mashiach, ho hiereus ho christos; ha-kohen ha-gadhol, ho hiereus ho megas; kohen ha-ro'sh, ho hiereus hegoumenos; New Testament archiereus):
I. INSTITUTION OF THE HIGH-PRIESTHOOD
1. The Family
2. The Consecration
3. The Dress
4. The Duties of High-Priesthood
5. Special Regulations
6. The Emoluments
7. Importance of the Office
II. HISTORY OF THE HIGH-PRIESTHOOD IN ISRAEL
1. In the Old Testament
2. In the New Testament
I. Institution of the High-Priesthood.
Temples with an elaborate ritual, a priesthood and a high priest were familiar to Moses. For a millennium or two before his time these had flourished in Egypt. Each temple had its priest or priests, the larger temples and centers having a high priest. For centuries the high priest of Amon at Thebes stood next to the king in power and influence. Many other high-priesthoods of less importance existed. Moses' father-in-law was priest of Midian, doubtless the chief or high priest. In founding a nation and establishing an ecclesiastical system, nothing would be more natural and proper for him than to institute a priestly system with a high priest at the head. The records give a fairly full account of the institution of the high-priesthood.
1. The Family:
Aaron, the brother of Moses, was chosen first to fill the office. He was called "the priest" (ha-kohen) (Exodus 31:10). As the office was to be hereditary and to be preserved in perpetuity in the family of Aaron (Exodus 29:9, 29), he is succeeded by his son Eleazar (Numbers 20:28 Deuteronomy 10:6), and he in turn by his son Phinehas (Numbers 25:11). In his time the succession was fixed (Numbers 25:12, 13). In Leviticus 4:3, 5, 16; Leviticus 6:22 he is called "the anointed priest." Three times in the Pentateuch he is spoken of as "great priest" or "high priest" (Leviticus 21:10 Numbers 35:25, 28). The first of these passages identifies him with the anointed priest.
2. The Consecration:
The ceremonies by which he was installed in his office are recorded in Exodus 29:29;. Seven days of special solemnities were spent. The first consecration was by Moses; it is not said who performed the others. There was special washing and anointing with oil (Psalm 133:2). Each new high priest must wear the holy garments, as well as be specially anointed (Leviticus 21:10). Every day a bullock for a sin offering must be offered for atonement; the altar also must be cleansed, atoned for, and anointed, the high priest offering a sacrifice or minchah for himself (Leviticus 6:24).
3. The Dress:
Besides the regularly prescribed dress of the priests, the high priest must wear the robe of the ephod, the ephod, the breastplate and the mitre or head-dress (Leviticus 8:7-9). The robe of the ephod seems to have been a sleeveless tunic, made of blue, fringed with alternate bells and pomegranates (Exodus 28:31-35; Exodus 39:22-26). The ephod seemed to be a variegated dress of the four colors of the sanctuary, blue, purple, scarlet and fine linen interwoven with gold (Exodus 28:6-8; Exodus 39:2-5). This distinguishing ephod of the high priest was fastened at the shoulders by two clasps of shoham stone, upon each of which was engraved the names of six tribes of Israel (Exodus 28:9-14; Exodus 39:6, 7). Over the ephod and upon his breast he wore the breastplate, a four-cornered choshen suspended by little chains. Set in this in four rows were twelve precious stones, having engraved upon them the names of the twelve tribes of Israel. This breastplate must have contained a pocket of some kind inside, for in it were deposited the Urim and Thummim, which seemed to be tangible objects of some kind (Exodus 28:15-30; Exodus 39:8-21). The mitre or head-dress was of fine linen, the plate of the crown of pure gold, and inscribed upon it the words, "Holy to Yahweh" (Exodus 28:36-38; Exodus 39:30, 31). When entering the Holy of Holies he must be dressed wholly in linen, but in his ordinary duties in the dress of the priests; only when acting as high priest he must wear his special robes.
4. The Duties of the High-Priesthood:
In addition to his regular duties as a priest, the high priest was to enter the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:3, 15, 33, 34). He must also officiate at the ceremony of the two goats, when one is sent into the wilderness to Azazel, and the other slain to make atonement for the sanctuary (Exodus 30:10 Leviticus 16:8-10). He alone could make atonement for the sins of the people, the priests and his own house (Leviticus 4:3; 9:8 ; 16:6 Numbers 15:25). He must offer the regular meal offering (Leviticus 6:14, 15). He must share with the priests in the caring for the lamp that burned continually (Exodus 27:21), He must assist in arranging the shewbread (Exodus 25:30). When he carried the breastplate with the names of the tribes inscribed thereon he acted as mediator between Israel and God (Exodus 28:29). He alone could consult the Urim and Thummim before Yahweh, and according to his decision Israel must obey (Numbers 27:21).
5. Special Regulations:
An office so important required certain special regulations. He must be free from every bodily defect (Leviticus 21:16-23). He must marry only a virgin of Israel, not a widow, nor a divorced woman, nor a profane one (Leviticus 21:14). He must not observe the external signs of mourning for any person, and not leave the sanctuary when news came of the death of even a father or mother (Leviticus 21:10-12). He must not defile himself by contact with any dead body, even father or mother (Leviticus 21:11); and is forbidden to let his hair grow long or rend his clothes as a sign of mourning (Leviticus 21:10). If he should bring guilt upon the people, he must present a special offering (Leviticus 4:3). Sins affecting the priesthood in general must be expiated by the other priests as well as himself (Numbers 18:1). He must eat nothing that died of itself or was torn by beasts (Leviticus 22:8). He must wash his feet and hands when he went to the tabernacle of the congregation and when he came near to the altar to minister (Exodus 30:19-21). At first Aaron was to burn incense on the golden altar every morning when he dressed the lamps and every evening when he lighted them (Exodus 27:21), but in later times the common priests performed this duty. He must abstain from holy things during his uncleanness (Leviticus 22:1-3), or if he should become leprous (Leviticus 22:4, 7). He was to eat the people's meat offering with the inferior priests in the holy place (Leviticus 6:16). He must assist in judging the leprosy in the human body and garments (Leviticus 13:2-59), and in adjudicating legal questions (Deuteronomy 17:12). When there was no divinely-inspired leader, the high priest was the chief ruler till the time of David and again after the captivity.
See PRIEST; PRIESTHOOD.
6. The Emoluments:
The emoluments were not much greater than those of the priests in general. He received no more inheritance among the tribes than any other Levite, but he and his family were maintained upon certain fees, dues and perquisites which they enjoyed from the common fund. In Numbers 18:28 the priests were to receive a tithe of the tithe paid in to the Levites. Josephus says this was a common fund (Ant., IV, iv, 4), but the high priest was probably charged with the duty of distributing it. In general the family of the high priest was well-to-do, and in the later period became very wealthy. The high priest and his family were among the richest people of the land in the time of Christ, making enormous profits out of the sacrifices and temple business.
7. Importance of the Office:
The importance of the high priest's office was manifest from the first. The high priest Eleazar is named in the first rank with Joshua, the prince of the tribes and successor of Moses (Numbers 34:17 Joshua 14:1). He with others officiated in the distribution of the spoils of the Midianites (Numbers 31:21, 26). His sins were regarded as belonging to the people (Leviticus 4:3, 12). He acted with Moses in important matters (Numbers 26:1; Numbers 31:29). The whole congregation must go or come according to his word (Numbers 27:20). His death was a national event, for then the manslayer was free to leave the City of Refuge (Numbers 35:25, 28). He had no secular authority, but was regarded generally as the leading religious authority. Later, he became also the leading secular as well as religious authority.
II. History of the High-Priesthood in Israel.
1. In the Old Testament:
In general the present writer accepts the historical records of the Old Testament as true and rejects the critical views of a fictitious or falsified history. Such views have only subjective reasons to support them and are based upon a naturalistic evolutionary view of the development of Israel's religion. As Moses was the founder of the high-priesthood in Israel he anticipated a perpetuation of the office throughout the history (Deuteronomy 26:3). The high priest appears frequently. Eleazar officiated with Joshua in the division of the land among the twelve tribes (Joshua 14:1). The law of the manslayer shows that he was an important personage in the life of Israel (Joshua 20:6). He seemed to have the power to distribute the offices of the priests to those whom he would, and poor priests would appeal to him for positions (1 Samuel 2:36). The office seems to have remained in the family of Eleazar until the days of Eli, when, because of the wickedness of his sons, the family was destroyed and the position passed into the family of Ithamar (1 Samuel 2:31-36). A descendant of that family officiated at Nob in the times of Saul, whose name was Ahimelech (1 Samuel 21:2; 1 Samuel 22:11). His son, Abiathar, escaped from the slaughter, and later seems to have succeeded his father and to have been chief priest throughout David's reign (1 Samuel 22:20-23; 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7). Zadok seems to have had almost equal privilege (2 Samuel 8:17 1 Chronicles 18:16; 1 Chronicles 24:6 almost certainly by copyist's error, transpose Abiathar and Ahimelech; Mark 2:26 may be based on this reading. See ABIATHAR, etc.). Because he joined the party of Adonijah rather than that of Solomon, Abiathar was deposed and banished to Anathoth, where he spent the rest of his days (1 Kings 2:26, 27). Zadok was put in his place (1 Kings 2:35). He seems to have been a descendant of Eleazar. Under Jehoshaphat, Amariah was high priest (2 Chronicles 19:11) and was the leading authority in all religious matters. In the time of Athaliah, during the minority of Joash and almost his entire reign Jehoiada was high priest and chief adviser. He seems to have been the most influential man in the kingdom for more than half a century (2 Kings 11:4; 11:2-16 2 Chronicles 24 passim). Azariah officiated in the days of Uzziah and Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 26:20; 2 Chronicles 31:10); Urijah in the reign of Ahaz (2 Kings 16:10-16), and the latter priest seems to have been a friend of Isaiah (Isaiah 8:2). Hilkiah held the office in the days of Josiah when the Book of the Law was discovered (2 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 23:4 2 Chronicles 34:9); Zephaniah in the time of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 29:25 f); Seraiah in the days of Zedekiah, who was put to death at Riblah by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 25:18 Jeremiah 52:24). At the time, mention is made of a priest of the second rank (2 Kings 23:4; 2 Kings 25:18) and Zephaniah fills that office (Jeremiah 52:24). It is doubtful whether this is the same Zephaniah mentioned in Jeremiah 29:25. This "second priest" was doubtless a deputy, appointed to take the high priest's place in case anything should prevent his performing the duties of the office. Lists of high priests are given in 1 Chronicles 6:1-15; 1 Chronicles 6:50-53. The first of these gives the line from Levi to Jehozadak who was carried away in the captivity under Nebuchadnezzar. The second traces the line from Aaron to Ahimaaz, and is identical so far with the first list.
There could have been no place for the functions of the high priest during the captivity, but the family line was preserved and Joshua the son of Jehozadak was among those who first returned (Ezra 3:2). From this time the high priest becomes more prominent. The monarchy is gone, the civil authority is in the hands of the Persians, the Jews are no longer independent, and hence, the chief power tends to center in the high-priesthood. Joshua appears to stand equal with Zerubbabel (Haggai 1:1, 12, 14; Haggai 2:2, 4 Zechariah 3:1, 8; Zechariah 4:14; Zechariah 6:11-13).
He is distinctly known as high priest (ha-kohen ha-gadhol). He takes a leading part in establishing the ecclesiastico-civil system, particularly the building of the temple. In the vision of Zechariah (Zechariah 3:1-5) Satan accuses the high priest who is here the representative proper of the nation. The consummation of the Messianic age cannot be completed without the cooperation of the high priest who is crowned with Zerubbabel, and sits with him on the throne (Zechariah 6:13). The prophet also describes Joshua and his friends as "men of the sign," alluding to the coming Messiah under whom the sin of the land was to be taken away in one day (Zechariah 3:9 f). The promise is made to Joshua that if he will walk in Yahweh's ways and keep His house, he shall judge Yahweh's house, i.e. Israel, keep His court and have a place to walk among those who stand before Yahweh (Zechariah 3:7). He is anointed equally with the prince of the royal line, for the two sons of oil (Zechariah 4:14) almost certainly refer to the royal Zerubbabel and priestly Joshua who are to be joint inspirers of Israel in rebuilding the temple.
This exaltation of the high priest is very different from the state of things pictured by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40, 41, 42). In that picture no place is left for a high priest; the prince seemed to be the chief personage in the ecclesiastical system. Ezekiel's vision was ideal, the actual restoration was very different, and the institutions and conditions of the past were carried out rather than the visions of the prophet. In the time of Nehemiah, Eliashib was high priest (Nehemiah 3:1, 20). For abusing his office by using a temple chamber in the interests of his family he was reprimanded (Nehemiah 13:4-9). The list of high priests from Jeshua to Jaddua is given in Nehemiah 12:10. According to Josephus (Ant., XI, viii, 5) Jaddua was priest at the time of Alexander the Great (332 B.C.), but it is practically certain that it was Jaddua's grandson, Simon, who was then priest (see W.J. Beecher, Reasonable Biblical Criticism, chapter xviii). Thus is preserved the unbroken line from Aaron to Jaddua, the office still being hereditary. No essential change can be found since the days of Ezra. The Book of Chronicles, compiled some time during this period, uses the three names, ha-kohen, ha-kohen ha-ro'sh, ha-kohen ha-gadhol. The word naghidh ("prince") is also used, and he is called "the ruler of the house of God" (1 Chronicles 9:11). This seems to imply considerable power invested in him. Usually the Chronicler in both books of Chronicles and Nehemiah uses the term "the priest."
The line of Eleazar doubtless continued until the time of the Maccabees, when a decided change took place. The Syrian Antiochus deposed Onias III and put his brother Jason in his place (174 B.C.), who was soon displaced by Menelaus. About 153 B.C. Jonathan the Hasmonean was appointed by King Alexander, and thus the high-priesthood passed to the priestly family of Joiarib (1 Maccabees 10:18-21). Whether the family of Joiarib was a branch of the Zadokites or not cannot be determined. After the appointment of Jonathan, the office became hereditary in the Hasmonean line, and continued thus until the time of Herod the Great. The latter set up and deposed high priests at his pleasure. The Romans did the same, and changed so frequently that the position became almost an annual appointment. Though many changes were thus made, the high priest was always chosen from certain priestly families. From this group of deposed priests arose a class known as "chief priests." The anointing prescribed in the law of Moses was not always carried out in later times, and in fact was generally omitted. The Mishna speaks of high priests who were installed in office simply by clothing them with their special robes (Schurer, II, i, p. 217, note 24).
2. In the New Testament:
In New Testament times the high priest was the chief civil and ecclesiastical dignitary among the Jews. He was chairman of the Sanhedrin, and head of the political relations with the Roman government. It is not clear just how far he participated in the ceremonies of the temple. No doubt he alone entered the Holy of Holies once a year on the Day of Atonement, and also offered the daily offerings during that week. What other part he took in the work was according to his pleasure. Josephus says that he officiated at the Sabbath, the New Moon and yearly festivals. The daily minchah (Leviticus 6:12) which he was required to offer was not always offered by the high priest in person, but he was required to defray the expense of it. This was a duty which, according to Ezekiel's vision, was to be performed by the prince. The Jews had many contentions with the Romans as to who should keep the garments of the high priest. When Jerusalem fell into the hands of the Romans, the robe of state also fell into their hands.
In the time of Christ, Annas and Caiaphas were high priests (Luke 3:2), though, as appears later in the Gospel, Caiaphas alone acted as such. Annas had probably been deposed, yet retained much of his influence among the priestly families. For particulars see ANNAS; CAIAPHAS; JESUS CHRIST. These two were also the chief conspirators against Jesus. As president of the council Caiaphas deliberately advised them to put Jesus to death to save the nation (John 11:51). He was also chairman of the council which tried and condemned Jesus (Matthew 26:57, 58, 63, 65 Mark 14:53, 60, 61, 63 Luke 22:54 John 18:12-14, 19, 24, 28). They were also leaders in the persecution of the apostles and disciples after Pentecost (Acts 4:6; Acts 5:17, 21); Saul sought letters from the high priest to Damascus to give him authority to bring any Christians he might find there bound to Jerusalem (Acts 9:2). He presided at the council which tried Paul (Acts 22:5; Acts 23:4).
See PAUL, THE APOSTLE.
In the Epistle to the Hebrews the doctrine of the priesthood of Jesus is fully and carefully elaborated. Jesus is here called the great High Priest, as well as priest. The opening words of the Epistle contain the essential thought: "when he had made purification of sins" (1:3). The title of high priest is first introduced in 2:17, "a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God"; also in 3:1, "the Apostle and High Priest of our confession." Having thus fairly introduced his great theme, the writer strikes the keynote of his great argument: "Having then a great high priest," etc. (4:14, 15). From 4:14 to 7:28 the argument deals with the high-priestly work of Jesus. His qualifications are not only those which distinguish all priesthood, but they are also unique. He is named after the order of Melchizedek. The general qualifications are:
(1) He is appointed by God to His office (5:1).
(2) He is well fitted for the office by His experiences and participation in human temptations (5:2-6; 2:18).
(3) He undergoes a divine preparation (5:8, 9).
The special qualifications of His priesthood are: It is after the order of Melchiezedek (5:10). This is an eternal one (6:20); royal or kingly (7:1-3); independent of birth or family (7:3); it is timeless (7:8); superior to that of Levi (7:4-10); new and different from that of Aaron (7:11, 12). It is also indissoluble (7:16); immutable (7:21); inviolable (7:24). Thus, with all these general and special qualifications, He is completely fitted for His work (7:26). That work consists in offering up Himself as a sacrifice for the sins of the people (7:27); entering within the veil as a forerunner (6:20); presenting the sacrificial blood in heaven itself (8:3; 9:7, 24); thus obtaining eternal redemption (9:12); ratifying the new covenant (9:15-22). The result of this high-priestly work is a cleansing from all sin (9:23); a possibility of full consecration to God and His service (10:10); an ultimate perfection (10:14); and full access to the throne of grace (10:21, 22).
See CHRIST, OFFICES OF; PRIEST; PRIESTHOOD IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
Articles on the priesthood in general, with references to the high priest in HDB, HCG, EB, Jew Encyclopedia, Kitto, Smith, Fallows, Schaff-Herzog, etc.; no article on "High Priest" only. For the history, Breasted, History of Egypt; Schurer, History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, II, i, 207-99; Josephus, Ant, XV, XVIII, XX. For works on the priesthood from the radical viewpoint, see Graf, S.I. Curtiss, Jost, Graetz, Kautzsch, Budde, Baentsch, Benzinger, Buchler, Meyer, Wellhausen. For a more moderate position see Baudissin, Die Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Priesterthums untersucht. For a more conservative position see A. Van Hoonacker, Le sacerdoce levitique dans la loi et dans l'histoire des Hebreux. On the high-priesthood subsequent to the return from Babylon, see B. Pick, Lutheran Church Review, 1898, I, 127-41; II, 370-74; III, 555-56; IV, 655-64; and the commentaries on the passages cited.
James Josiah Reeve
CHRIST AS KING, PRIEST, PROPHET
See under several titles; also CHRIST, OFFICES OF.
See PRIEST, HIGH.
PRIEST, CHRIST AS
See CHRIST, OFFICES OF.
Priest (500 Occurrences)
Matthew 8:4 Jesus said to him, "See that you tell nobody, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:3 Then the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:47 While he was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priest and elders of the people. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:51 Behold, one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck the servant of the high priest, and struck off his ear. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:57 Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:58 But Peter followed him from a distance, to the court of the high priest, and entered in and sat with the officers, to see the end. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:62 The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:63 But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:65 Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:44 and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 2:26 How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:47 But a certain one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:53 They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:54 Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:60 The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:61 But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:63 The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:66 As Peter was in the courtyard below, one of the maids of the high priest came, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 1:5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 1:8 Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 5:14 He commanded him to tell no one, "But go your way, and show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 10:31 By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:50 A certain one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:54 They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 11:49 But a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 11:51 Now he didn't say this of himself, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:10 Simon Peter therefore, having a sword, drew it, and struck the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:13 and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:15 Simon Peter followed Jesus, as did another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:16 but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:19 The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:22 When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, "Do you answer the high priest like that?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:24 Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off, said, "Didn't I see you in the garden with him?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 4:6 Annas the high priest was there, with Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and as many as were relatives of the high priest. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:17 But the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:21 When they heard this, they entered into the temple about daybreak, and taught. But the high priest came, and those who were with him, and called the council together, and all the senate of the children of Israel, and sent to the prison to have them brought. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:24 Now when the high priest, the captain of the temple, and the chief priests heard these words, they were very perplexed about them and what might become of this. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:27 When they had brought them, they set them before the council. The high priest questioned them, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:1 The high priest said, "Are these things so?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 9:1 But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 9:2 went to the High Priest and begged from him letters addressed to the synagogues in Damascus, in order that if he found any believers there, either men or women, he might bring them in chains to Jerusalem. (WEY)
Acts 14:13 The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice along with the multitudes. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 19:14 There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 22:5 As also the high priest and all the council of the elders testify, from whom also I received letters to the brothers, and traveled to Damascus to bring them also who were there to Jerusalem in bonds to be punished. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 23:2 The high priest, Ananias, commanded those who stood by him to strike him on the mouth. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 23:4 Those who stood by said, "Do you malign God's high priest?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 23:5 Paul said, "I didn't know, brothers, that he was high priest. For it is written,'You shall not speak evil of a ruler of your people.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 24:1 After five days, the high priest, Ananias, came down with certain elders and an orator, one Tertullus. They informed the governor against Paul. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 25:2 Then the high priest and the principal men of the Jews informed him against Paul, and they begged him, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 15:16 that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, serving as a priest the Good News of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. (WEB WEY BBE YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 2:17 Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 3:1 Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 4:14 Having then a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold tightly to our confession. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 4:15 For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 5:1 For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 5:2 The high priest can deal gently with those who are ignorant and going astray, because he himself is also surrounded with weakness. (WEB)
Hebrews 5:5 So also Christ didn't glorify himself to be made a high priest, but it was he who said to him, "You are my Son. Today I have become your father." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 5:6 As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 5:10 named by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 6:20 where as a forerunner Jesus entered for us, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:3 without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:11 Now if there was perfection through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people have received the law), what further need was there for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron? (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:15 This is yet more abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another priest, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:16 who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: (See RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:17 for it is testified, "You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:20 Inasmuch as he was not made priest without the taking of an oath (WEB KJV WBS YLT NIV)
Hebrews 7:21 (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind,'You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek.'" (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:24 But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:26 For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:28 For the law appoints men as high priests who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the law appoints a Son forever who has been perfected. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 8:1 Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 8:3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. Therefore it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 8:4 For if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are priests who offer the gifts according to the law; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 8:6 But now his position as priest is higher. because through him God has made a better agreement with man, based on the giving of better things. (BBE)
Hebrews 9:7 but into the second the high priest alone, once in the year, not without blood, which he offers for himself, and for the errors of the people. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 9:11 But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 9:25 nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters into the holy place year by year with blood not his own, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 10:11 Every priest indeed stands day by day serving and often offering the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 10:12 this Priest, on the contrary, after offering for sins a single sacrifice of perpetual efficacy, took His seat at God's right hand, (WEY NIV)
Hebrews 10:21 and having a great priest over the house of God, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 13:11 For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine: and he was priest of God Most High. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 41:45 Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphenath-Paneah; and he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On as a wife. Joseph went out over the land of Egypt. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 41:50 To Joseph were born two sons before the year of famine came, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore to him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 46:20 To Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 2:16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters. They came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 3:1 Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, and came to God's mountain, to Horeb. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 18:1 Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, how that Yahweh had brought Israel out of Egypt. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:1 "Bring Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, near to you from among the children of Israel, that he may minister to me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:3 You shall speak to all who are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron's garments to sanctify him, that he may minister to me in the priest's office. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:4 These are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of checker work, a turban, and a sash: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, and his sons, that he may minister to me in the priest's office. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 29:30 Seven days shall the son who is priest in his place put them on, when he comes into the Tent of Meeting to minister in the holy place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 29:33 All those things which were used as offerings to take away sin, and to make them holy to be priests, they may have for food: but no one who is not a priest may have them, for they are holy food. (Root in BBE)
Exodus 30:33 Whoever makes any like it, or puts it on one who is not a priest, will be cut off from his people. (BBE NIV)
Exodus 31:10 the finely worked garments-the holy garments for Aaron the priest-the garments of his sons to minister in the priest's office, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 35:19 the finely worked garments, for ministering in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 38:21 This is the amount of material used for the tabernacle, even the Tabernacle of the Testimony, as they were counted, according to the commandment of Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:41 the finely worked garments for ministering in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)