|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chronicles 3:6; 9:10; Revelation 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (Cant. 5:14; Isaiah 54:11, 12; Lamentations 4:7).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
1. Hebrew and Greek Words:
(1) Chiefly 'ebhen, and lithos; but also, occurring rarely, 'eshekh (Leviticus 21:20); tsur (Job 22:24), usually "rock"; tseror (2 Samuel 17:13); petros (John 1:42); psephos (Revelation 2:17). For cela`, usually "cliff," "crag," "rock," the King James Version, in Psalm 137:9; Psalm 141:6, has "stone," but the Revised Version (British and American) "rock." For the King James Version "stones," cheres (Job 41:30), the Revised Version (British and American) has "potsherds."
2. Literal Usage:
The word is used of great stones (Genesis 29:2); of small stones (1 Samuel 17:40); of stones set up as memorials (1 Samuel 7:12, "Eben-ezer," "stone of help"); of precious stones (Exodus 35:9, etc.); of hailstones (Joshua 10:11).
3. Figurative Usage: Of hardness: "I will take the stony heart out of their flesh" (Ezekiel 11:19); of one smitten: "(Nabal's) heart died within him, and became as a stone" (1 Samuel 25:37); of weight: "A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty" (Proverbs 27:3); of dumbness: "Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise!" (Habakkuk 2:19); of Jerusalem: "I will make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all the peoples" (Zechariah 12:3); of the corner-stone as a figure of high position:
"The stone which the builders rejected
Is become the head of the corner" (Psalm 118:22).
See FLINT; ROCK.
(2) Used also anatomically of the testicles (Leviticus 21:20 Deuteronomy 23:1 Job 40:17, pachadh, the Revised Version (British and American) "thighs").
Alfred Ely Day
" 1. Ancient and Modern Names
2. Change of Signification of Names
3. Three Important Lists of Stones
4. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by John
5. Interpretation of Hebrew Names
6. Greek and Latin Equivalents of Hebrew Names
7. Inconsistencies of Text or Translation
8. Vulgate and Septuagint
9. Hebrew Texts of Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible
10. Equivalence of Hebrew and Greek Names
11. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by Septuagint
12. List of Names with Biblical References
1. Ancient and Modern Names:
Great difficulty is met with in any attempt to translate the Greek and Hebrew names mentioned in the Bible into names that would be used for the same minerals in a particular country at the present day. It is only within the last century, through the development of the sciences of chemistry and crystallography, that it has become possible to define mineral species with any considerable approach to precision. In ancient times various minerals were regarded as belonging to a single kind, and indicated by a single name, that are now distributed into different kinds and mentioned under different names.
For example, 2,000 years ago the Greek term anthrax was used to signify various hard, transparent, red stones that are now known to differ much from one another in chemical composition, and are therefore assigned to different species and given different names; among them are oriental ruby (red corundum), balas ruby (red spinel), almandine and pyrope (red garnets); a stone designated anthrax by the ancient Greeks might thus belong to any one of a number of various kinds to the assemblage of which no name is now given, and the word anthrax has no simple equivalent in a modern language.
2. Change of Signification of Names:
Confusion is introduced in another way. The English names of most of the precious stones mentioned in the Bible are adaptations of Greek names through the Latin; for instance, the English word "topaz" is a modification of the Latin word topazius, itself merely a Latin form of the Greek word topazion. It would at first sight appear that the Greek word topazion must be translated into English by the word "topaz"; but, strangely, although the words are virtually identical, the stones indicated by the words are quite different. The topazion of the ancient Greeks was a green stone yielding to the action of a file and said to be brought from an island in the Red Sea, whereas the topaz of the present day is not a green stone, does not yield to the action of a file, and has not been brought from an island in the Red Sea. The topazion of the ancient Greeks is really the peridot, not the topaz, of modern mineralogy; topazion and topaz are different kinds of stone. For the interpretation of the Bible it is thus necessary to ascertain, if possible, the kind of stone to which a Greek or Hebrew name was applied at the time when the word was written.
3. Three Important Lists of Stones:
Most of the names of the precious stones mentioned in the Bible are contained in the Hebrew description of the breastplate of the high priest and the Greek description of the foundations of the New Jerusalem. The ornaments assigned to the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13) included only stones that had been used in the breastplate; indeed, in the Septuagint, they are the same twelve, mentioned in precisely the same order.
The stones of the breastplate according to our Hebrew text (Exodus 28:17-21) were:
The foundations of the New Jerusalem are (Revelation 21:19, 20):
Only 4 of the latter stones are mentioned elsewhere in the New Testament, also in the Book of Revelation, namely: iaspis (4:3; 21:18), smaragdos (4:3), sardion (4:3) and huakinthos (9:17).
4. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by John:
For the interpretation of the Greek names used by John, much help is given by Pliny's great work on Natural History, published 77 A.D., for it records what was known about precious stones at the very time when John himself was living. The Greek names of stones and their Latin verbal equivalents had presumably the same signification for both these writers; it is thus possible, in some cases at least, to ascertain what name is now assigned to a stone mentioned in the New Testament if the name and description are recorded in the treatise of Pliny; the results are given in the alphabetical list below. All twelve stones, except chalkedon, are mentioned by Pliny; the few important stones described by him, but not mentioned by John as foundations, are crystallum and adamas, both of them colorless; onyx, remarkable rather for structure than color; electrum (amber), a soft material; carbunculus, fiery red; callaina, pale green, probably turquoise; cyanus, dark blue; and opalus (opal); ranked in Pliny's time immediately after smaragdus in value. Achates (agate) is omitted, but was no longer precious.
5. Interpretation of Hebrew Names:
In the interpretation of the Hebrew names of the stones of the breastplate there is much greater difficulty, for no Hebrew literature other than the Old Testament has been preserved, and little help is afforded by the contexts of other verses in which some of the Hebrew names of precious stones occur. If we could assume that the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions of the description of the breastplate were made from Hebrew texts absolutely identical in respect of the names of the stones with those used for the preparation of the English Versions of the Bible, and that the versions were correctly made, the Greek equivalents of the Hebrew terms for the time of the Septuagint translators (about 280 B.C.) and their Latin equivalents for the time of Jerome (about 400 A.D.) would be directly determinable by collation of the Hebrew original with the Greek and Latin translations.
It must be remembered, however, that a Hebrew writer, in describing the arrangement of a row of stones, began with that on his right and mentioned them in the order right to left, while a western writer begins with the stone on his left and mentions them in the reverse order. Hence, in translating a Hebrew statement of arrangement into a western language, one may either translate literally word by word, thus adopting the Hebrew direction of reading, or, more completely, may adopt the western direction for the order in the row. As either method may have been adopted by the Septuagint translators, it follows that 'odhem and bareqeth, the first and last stones of the 1st row according to our Hebrew text, may respectively be equivalent either to sardion and smaragdos, or, conversely, to smaragdos and sardion; and similarly for the other rows. The number of the middle stone of any row is the same whichever direction of reading is adopted. 'Odhem being red, and sardion and smaragdos respectively red and green (see below), 'odhem must be equivalent to the former, not the latter, and the Septuagint translators must have adopted the Hebrew direction of reading the rows.
6. Greek and Latin Equivalents of Hebrew Names:
Other sets of possible equivalents are derivable by collation of the Biblical description with each of the two descriptions given by Josephus (Ant., III, vii, 5; BJ, V, v, 7). The possible Greek and Latin equivalents of Hebrew names are thus as follows:
It may be remarked, as regards the 1st stone of the 1st row, that in the time of Josephus the stone sardonux could be signified also by the more general term sardion; and, as regards the 1st stone of the 2nd row, that anthrax and carbo being respectively Greek and Latin for "glowing coal," anthrax and carbunculus, diminutive of carbo, were used as synonyms for certain red stones.
7. Inconsistencies of Text or Translations
From the inconsistencies of the above table of possible equivalents it may be inferred that either
(1) essentially different translations were given in several cases for the same Hebrew word, or
(2) the Hebrew texts used in the preparation of the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were, in respect of the precious stones, different from each other and from that used in the preparation of English Versions of the Bible, or
(3) the breastplate differed at different epochs, or
(4) one or other, or both, of the descriptions by Josephus are incorrect. Conceivably differences may have arisen in all the above-mentioned ways.
(1) Inconsistency of Septuagint Translators
That the Septuagint translators were uncertain as to the correct translation of the Hebrew names used for the precious stones into the Greek names used in their time, and that they translated the Hebrew name of a stone in more than one way may be shown as follows. In the Hebrew text corresponding to English Versions of the Bible the word shoham, designating the 2nd stone of the 4th row of the breastplate, occurs also in several verses where there is no mention of other stones, and where there is thus no risk of accidental interchange, such as may easily occur when technical terms, more especially if unintelligible to the transcriber, are near to one another in the text. Now, for our versions shoham has been systematically translated "onyx," and for the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) the Hebrew word having the same position in the text has been systematically translated by a Latin synonym of onyx, namely, lapis onychinus (except in Job 28:16, where lapis sardonychus is the rendering). Hence, it is probable that the word in these particular verses was shoham in the Hebrew original of the Vulgate, and therefore also of the Hebrew original of the Septuagint. Yet in the Septuagint the Hebrew word is translated soom (1 Chronicles 29:2, indicating that the translator, not knowing the Greek word for shoham, gave merely its Greek transliteration) as well as smaragdos (Exodus 28:9; Exodus 35:27; Exodus 39:6 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 36:13), prasinos (Genesis 2:12), sardion (Exodus 25:7; Exodus 35:9 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 35:8), onux (Job 28:16).
These differences suggest that there were different Septuagint translators, even for different chapters of the same book, and that little care was taken by them to be consistent with one another in the translation of technical terms.
(2) Differences of Hebrew Texts
That the Hebrew texts used for the Septuagint, Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible were not identical in all the verses in which there is mention of precious stones is especially clear from an analysis of the respective descriptions of the ornaments of the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13). In the Septuagint 12 stones are mentioned; as already stated, they have precisely the same names and are mentioned in precisely the same order as the stones of the breastplate described in that version, the only difference being that gold and silver are inserted in the middle of the list. On the other hand, in Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible descriptions of the ornaments, only 9 of the 12 stones of the breastplate are mentioned; they are not in the same order as the corresponding stones in the breastplate as described in those VSS, silver is not mentioned at all, while gold is placed, not in the middle, but at the end of the list. Further, the order of mention of the stones in English Versions of the Bible differs from that of mention in Vulgate.
(3) Changes in the Breastplate
That the breastplate in use in the time of the Septuagint translators (about 280 B.C.) may have been different from the one described in the Book of Exodus is manifest if we have regard to the history of the Jewish nation; for Jerusalem was captured by Shishak, king of Egypt, about 973 B.C., by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, about 586 B.C., and by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, about 320 B.C. The original breastplate may have been part of the spoil on one or other of these occasions, and have then disappeared forever.
Again, between the times of the Septuagint translators and Josephus, Jerusalem was more than once in the hands of its enemies; in 198 B.C. the city was captured by Antiochus the Great; in 170 B.C. it was stormed, and its temple plundered, by Antiochus Epiphanes; in 54 B.C. the temple was desecrated by Crassus. The breastplate familiar to Josephus (for he was long a priest in the temple of Jerusalem) may thus not have been identical with that in use when the Septuagint version was made.
And if the signification of the Hebrew names of the stones had not been carefully passed down from one generation to another while the breastplate was no longer in existence (for instance, during the Babylonian captivity), or if stones like those of the original breastplate were not available when a new breastplate was being made, there would inevitably be differences in the breastplate at different times.
The probability of this hypothesis of one or more replacements of the breastplate is still further increased if we have regard to the large stones that were set in gold buttons and fastened to the shoulderpieces of the ephod, the vestment to which the breastplate itself was attached (Exodus 28:9; Exodus 39:6 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 36:13). According to the Septuagint, the material was smaragdos (and therefore green); according to Josephus it was sardonux (and therefore red with a layer of white). Though the Septuagint translators may never have had opportunities of looking closely at the stones, they might be expected to know the color of the material; Josephus must have seen them often. But the complete difference of colors of smaragdos and sardonux suggests that the difference of the names is due, not to a Septuagint mistranslation of the Hebrew name shoham, but to an actual difference of the material; it may have been smaragdos (and green) at the time when the Septuagint translation was made, and yet sardonux (and red with a layer of white) in the time of Josephus.
(4) Descriptions Given by Josephus
That in respect of the breastplate it is unsafe to collate the Hebrew texts of the various versions with that of Josephus may be demonstrated as follows. The 2nd stone of the 2nd row, termed cappir in our Hebrew text, is termed sappheiros in the Septuagint and sapphirus in the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Wherever else cappir occurs in our Hebrew text, sappheiros occurs in the corresponding place in the Septuagint and sapphirus in the Vulgate; it may thus be inferred that in respect of the word cappir our Hebrew text and the Hebrew texts used for the Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were in complete accord with one another. Also, it is certain that the Latin word sapphirus was derived from the Greek word sappheiros, and that either the latter had its origin in the Hebrew word cappir or that both words had the same source. There is no reason to think that from the time of the Septuagint translators to that of Jerome the word sappheiros was ever used to signify any other than one kind of stone or that the kind was ever called iaspis. But in both the descriptions given by Josephus the middle stone of the 2nd row is given as iaspis, not as sappheiros, which he makes the last stone of the row. Hence, for the middle stone of the 2nd row, the Hebrew texts were concordant in giving the name cappir, but they fundamentally differed from that of Josephus whose two descriptions agree in giving the name iaspis; it is not a difference of mere nomenclature or translation, but of the kind of stone set in a definite part of the breastplate. This being the case, collation of the Hebrew, Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) descriptions of the breastplate with those given by Josephus cannot be relied on to give a true Greek or a true Latin equivalent for the Hebrew name of any of the stones.
It may be added that the two descriptions given by Josephus differ from each other only as regards the order of the stones in the last two rows; in the 3rd row, the order is precisely reversed; in the 4th row the order is chrusolithos, onuchion, berullion for Ant, and onuchion, berullion, chrusolithos for BJ. Josephus, Antiquities was written at greater leisure than BJ, and was not completed till 18 years later; Josephus had thus more time for the consultation of old manuscripts. Speaking generally, it is more accurate than his earlier treatise as regards the history of those times of which he had no direct knowledge; its description of the breastplate is more precise as regards the arrangement of the stones, and is therefore the one to which the greater weight must be given. It differs from the Septuagint only through the interchange of the 2nd and 3rd stones in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th rows; and possibly Josephus gave the order from his memory either of the Septuagint or of the actual breastplate.
The only difference between the descriptions given in the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) is that the last two stones, namely berullion (beryllus) and onuchion (onychinus), are interchanged.
8. Vulgate and Septuagint:
As already pointed out, the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible must have differed completely as regards the descriptions of the ornaments of the king of Tyre; it is thus not at all certain that they were in complete accord as regards the descriptions of the breastplate. In fact, it is generally accepted that the Hebrew word yashepheh and the Greek word iaspis are virtually identical, and that they were used to signify the same kind of stone.
9. Hebrew Texts of Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible:
Hence, it follows that the Hebrew text of English Versions of the Bible is not identical with the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions in respect of the stones in the 2nd and 4th rows; if our Hebrew text is correct as regards yashepheh, that stone was the last stone in the last row; if the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were correct, yashepheh, which had for its Greek equivalent iaspis, must have been the last stone in the 2nd row; further, onuchion (Septuagint) and beryllus (Vulgate) must be equivalent, not to yashepheh, but to some other stones of the breastplate.
10. Equivalence of Hebrew and Greek Names:
Taking these matters into consideration, the following have considerable claims to be regarded as equivalents:
The remaining three stones, tarshish, shoham and yahalom, are thus equivalent to chrusolithos, onuchion and berullion, but it is uncertain which Greek name corresponds to any of those Hebrew names.
11. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by Sepuagint:
For the interpretation of the Greek names of stones mentioned in the Septuagint (and thus of the Hebrew names in the original text), the work of Theophrastus, a contemporary of the Septuagint translators, is very useful. That author mentions, besides krustallos and margarites which occur elsewhere than in the description of the breastplate, nine of the Septuagint names of the breastplate stones, namely: achates, amethustos (as amethuson), anthrax, iaspis, ligurion (as lugkurion), onuchion, sappheiros, sardion, smaragdos. The three stones mentioned in the Septuagint but not by Theophrastus are berullion, chrusolithos, and topazion. Since he mentions only four stones that are not referred to in the Septuagint, namely chrusokolla, hualoeides, kuanos and omphax, it follows that the Septuagint translators at Alexandria introduced every important name that was then in use at Athens for a precious stone.
In the following alphabetical list references are given to all the verses in which each name of a precious stone occurs, and for each use of a translated name the corresponding word in the original text.
12. List of Names with Biblical References:
Achates (achates): probably Septuagint translation of shebho (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12). It is not mentioned in Apocrypha or the New Testament.
Adamant (see also special article): in Ezekiel 3:9 Zechariah 7:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew shamir.
Agate: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew shebho; in Isaiah 54:12 Ezekiel 27:16, the King James Version translation of Hebrew kadhkodh.
'Achlamah: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12: 3 rd stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate. Septuagint translates amethustos; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates amethystus; English Versions of the Bible "amethyst."
The Septuagint rendering amethustos is generally accepted as correct, but the late Professor N. S. Maskelyne, F.R.S., formerly (1857-80) Keeper of Minerals in the British Museum, gave reasons for regarding the 'achlamah of breastplate times as possibly an onyx in which white bands alternated with waxy-yellow to reddish-yellow bands.
Amber: in Ezekiel 1:4, 27; Ezekiel 8:2, the King James Version, the English Revised Version and the American Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew chashmal; in Exodus 28:19, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew leshem.
Amethustos (amethustos): in Revelation 21:20: the 12th foundation of the New Jerusalem; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates amethystus; English Versions of the Bible "amethyst." Four varieties of amethystus were recognized by Pliny as precious; all of them were transparent, and of purple tint or of tints derived from purple. According to the Septuagint, amethustos was the 3rd stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate, and the stone occupying this position is given in our Hebrew text as 'achlamah. Amethustos is mentioned under the name amethuson by Theophrastus; he describes it as a transparent stone resembling wine in color and as used by the gem engravers of his day. Amethystus and amethuson were doubtless identical with the amethyst of the present day, a purple variety of quartz (silica). Beads and other ornaments of amethyst found in old Egyptian tombs show that the stone was regarded as precious in very ancient times.
Amethyst: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew 'achlamah; in Revelation 21:20, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek amethustos.
Anthrax (anthrax): in Tobit 13:17; Ecclesiasticus 32:5, English Versions of the Bible translates "carbuncle." According to the Septuagint, anthrax was also a stone of the breastplate, 1st stone, 2nd row, but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word. The anthrax of Theophrastus included different kinds of hard, red stone used by the gem engravers. It is the carbunculus of Pliny's time, and probably included the oriental ruby (corundum, alumina), the balas ruby (spinel, aluminate of magnesium), the almandine (a kind of garnet, alumino-silicate of iron) and pyrope (another kind of garnet, alumino-silicate of magnesium) of the present day.
Bareqeth: in Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10 Ezekiel 28:13: 3 rd stone, 1st row, of breastplate. Septuagint probably translates smaragdos, but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word: English Versions of the Bible translates "carbuncle"; the Revised Version margin translates "emerald." The rendering smaragdos may be correct, but no emeralds of very early age have been found in Egypt. From the similarity of the words bareqeth and baraq ("lightning"), it has been suggested that possibly the breastplate stone was not green but of bluish-red color, in which case it may have been an almandine (garnet). English Versions of the Bible has interchanged the names given by Septuagint, to the 3rd stone of the 1st row (smaragdos, "emerald") and the 1st stone of the 2nd row (anthrax, "carbuncle").
Bdellium (see also special article): in Genesis 2:12 Numbers 11:7, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew bedholach.
Bedholach: The Septuagint translates anthrax in Genesis 2:12, and krustallos in Numbers 11:7; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible translate bdellium. Some commentators, rejecting both the Septuagint translations, interpret the material to be pearl, others to be the gum of an Arabian tree.
Berullos (berullos): in Tobit 13:17; Revelation 21:20: the 8th foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates beryllus; English Versions of the Bible translates "beryl." According to Septuagint, berullion was a stone of the breastplate, the 2nd stone, 4th row; owing to uncertainty as to their Hebrew text, there is doubt as to the Hebrew word translated berullion. Berullos is not mentioned by Theophrastus, who may have regarded it as included in the smaragdos of his day.
In the time of Pliny 8 varieties were recognized; he says that beryllus was already thought by some to be "of the same nature as the smaragdus, or at least closely analogous. India produces them, and they are rarely to be found elsewhere. The lapidaries cut all beryls of a hexagonal form because the color which is deadened by a dull uniformity of surface is heightened by the reflections resulting from the angles. If they are cut in any other way, these stones have no brilliancy whatever. The most esteemed beryls are those which in color resemble the pure green of the sea. Some are of opinion that beryls are naturally angular."
This description suggests the identity of the seagreen beryllus of Pliny's time with the sea-green beryl (alumino-silicate of beryllium) of the present day.
Beryl: in Exodus 28:20; Exodus 39:13 Songs 5:14 Ezekiel 1:16; Ezekiel 10:9; Ezekiel 28:13 Daniel 10:6, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew tarshish; in Genesis 2:12 Exodus 25:7 margin; 28:9, 20; 35:27 margin; 1 Chronicles 29:2 margin; Job 28:16 margin, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew shoham; in Tobit 13:17; Revelation 21:20, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek berullos.
Carbuncle: in Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10 Ezekiel 28:13, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew bareqeth; in Exodus 28:18 margin; 39:11:00; Ezekiel 27:16; Ezekiel 28:13, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew nophekh; in Isaiah 54:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew 'eqdach; Tobit 13:17; Ecclesiasticus 32:5, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek anthrax.
Chalcedony: in Exodus 28:20, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew tarshish; in Revelation 21:19, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek chalkedon.
Chalkedon (chalkedon): in Revelation 21:19: the 3rd foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates calcedonius; English Versions of the Bible translates "chalcedony." Though the name Chalcedon (Latin form) occurs in Pliny, it is not as the name of a stone but as that of a free town then standing on the southern side of the Bosphorus, probably close to the site on which Scutari now stands. Chalcedon had once been noted for its copper mines; but the latter, when Pliny wrote, had been so far exhausted that they were no longer worked.
Pliny refers to a kind of smaragdus (a green stone) as having been found near Chalcedon, but adds that the stones were of very small size and value. They were "brittle, and of a color far from distinctly pronounced; they resembled in their tints the feathers that are seen in the tail of the peacock or on the neck of the pigeon. More or less brilliant, too, according to the angle at which they were viewed, they presented an appearance like that of veins and scales." In another place he refers to a stone from Chalcedon or Calchedon (another reading) as being an iaspis of turbid hue. It is possible that at Patmos or Ephesus, at one of which John was living when he wrote the Book of Revelation, the word chalkedon was used to specify the particular kind of smaragdus or iaspis that had been found near the town of that name. It is uncertain what name would be given to such a stone in the present day, but the signification now attached to the name "chalcedony" (cryptocrystalline silica) cannot be traced farther back than the 15th century.
Chrusolithos (chrusolithos): in Revelation 21:20: the 7th foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates chrysolithus; the King James Version translates "chrysolyte"; the Revised Version (British and American) translates "chrysolite." According to Septuagint chrusolithos was one of the stones of the breastplate (lst stone, 4th row), but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word; the name is not mentioned by Theophrastus.
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See STONES, PRECIOUS.
Stones (244 Occurrences)
Matthew 3:9 Don't think to yourselves,'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 4:3 The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 13:5 And some of the seed went among the stones, where it had not much earth, and straight away it came up because the earth was not deep: (BBE)
Matthew 13:20 And that which went on the stones, this is he who, hearing the word, straight away takes it with joy; (BBE)
Matthew 21:35 but the vine-dressers seized the servants, and one they cruelly beat, one they killed, one they pelted with stones. (WEY)
Matthew 23:37 "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often I would have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you would not! (WEB KJV WEY DBY WBS NAS)
Mark 4:5 And some went on the stones, where it had not much earth; and it came up straight away, because the earth was not deep: (BBE)
Mark 4:16 And in the same way, these are they who are planted on the stones, who, when the word has come to their ears, straight away take it with joy; (BBE)
Mark 5:5 Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:4 Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 13:1 As he went out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves,'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 13:34 "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, like a hen gathers her own brood under her wings, and you refused! (WEB KJV WEY DBY WBS NAS)
Luke 19:40 He answered them, "I tell you that if these were silent, the stones would cry out." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 21:5 As some were talking about the temple and how it was decorated with beautiful stones and gifts, he said, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:59 Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 10:31 Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 16:18 For those who are such don't serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent. things of iron, and wood for the things of wood; onyx stones, and stones (WEB)
1 Corinthians 3:12 But if anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 3:7 But if the service of death, written engraved on stones, came with glory, so that the children of Israel could not look steadfastly on the face of Moses for the glory of his face; which was passing away: (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Hebrews 9:4 Having a vessel of gold in it for burning perfumes, and the ark of the agreement, which was covered with gold and which had in it a pot made of gold for the manna, and Aaron's rod which put out buds, and the stones with the writing of the agreement; (BBE)
1 Peter 2:5 You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:16 saying,'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls! (WEB KJV BBE DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Revelation 21:14 The wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and engraved upon them were twelve names--the names of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb. (WEY NAS)
Revelation 21:19 The foundations of the city's wall were adorned with all kinds of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS)
Genesis 28:11 He came to a certain place, and stayed there all night, because the sun had set. He took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:46 Jacob said to his relatives, "Gather stones." They took stones, and made a heap. They ate there by the heap. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:48 And Laban said, These stones are a witness between you and me today. For this reason its name was Galeed, (BBE)
Genesis 31:51 And Laban said, See these stones and this pillar which I have put between you and me; (BBE)
Genesis 31:52 They will be witness that I will not go over these stones to you, and you will not go over these stones or this pillar to me, for any evil purpose. (BBE)
Exodus 20:25 If you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of cut stones; for if you lift up your tool on it, you have polluted it. (WEB JPS ASV BBE YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 23:24 You shall not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor follow their practices, but you shall utterly overthrow them and demolish their pillars. (See NIV)
Exodus 24:12 And the Lord said to Moses, Come up to me on the mountain, and take your place there: and I will give you the stones on which I have put in writing the law and the orders, so that you may give the people knowledge of them. (BBE)
Exodus 25:7 onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod and for the breastplate. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:9 You shall take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the children of Israel: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, you shall engrave the two stones, according to the names of the children of Israel: you shall make them to be enclosed in settings of gold. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:12 You shall put the two stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before Yahweh on his two shoulders for a memorial. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:17 You shall set in it settings of stones, four rows of stones: a row of ruby, topaz, and beryl shall be the first row; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:21 The stones shall be according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names; like the engravings of a signet, everyone according to his name, they shall be for the twelve tribes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 31:5 and in cutting of stones for setting, and in carving of wood, to work in all manner of workmanship. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 31:18 And when his talk with Moses on Mount Sinai was ended, he gave him the two stones of the law, two stones on which was the writing made by the finger of God. (BBE)
Exodus 32:15 Then Moses came down the mountain with the two stones of the law in his hand; the stones had writing on their two sides, on the front and on the back. (BBE)
Exodus 32:16 The stones were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, cut on the stones. (BBE)
Exodus 32:19 And when he came near the tents he saw the image of the ox, and the people dancing; and in his wrath Moses let the stones go from his hands, and they were broken at the foot of the mountain. (BBE)
Exodus 34:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Make two other stones like the first two; and I will put on them the words which were on the first stones, which were broken by you. (BBE)
Exodus 34:4 So Moses got two stones cut like the first; and early in the morning he went up Mount Sinai, as the Lord had said, with the two stones in his hand. (BBE)
Exodus 34:13 but you shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and you shall cut down their Asherim; (See NIV)
Exodus 34:28 And for forty days and forty nights Moses was there with the Lord, and in that time he had no food or drink. And he put in writing on the stones the words of the agreement, the ten rules of the law. (BBE)
Exodus 34:29 Now when Moses came down from Mount Sinai, with the two stones in his hand, he was not conscious that his face was shining because of his talk with God. (BBE)
Exodus 35:9 onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod and for the breastplate. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 35:27 The rulers brought the onyx stones, and the stones to be set, for the ephod and for the breastplate; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 35:33 in cutting of stones for setting, and in carving of wood, to work in all kinds of skillful workmanship. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:6 They worked the onyx stones, enclosed in settings of gold, engraved with the engravings of a signet, according to the names of the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:7 He put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel, as Yahweh commanded Moses. by the hands of artificers. Who then offers willingly to consecrate himself this day to Yahweh? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:10 They set in it four rows of stones. A row of ruby, topaz, and beryl was the first row; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:14 The stones were according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names; like the engravings of a signet, everyone according to his name, for the twelve tribes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:40 then the priest shall command that they take out the stones in which is the plague, and cast them into an unclean place outside of the city: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:42 They shall take other stones, and put them in the place of those stones; and he shall take other mortar, and shall plaster the house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:43 "If the plague comes again, and breaks out in the house, after he has taken out the stones, and after he has scraped the house, and after it was plastered; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:45 He shall break down the house, its stones, and its timber, and all the house's mortar. He shall carry them out of the city into an unclean place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 20:2 "Moreover, you shall tell the children of Israel,'Anyone of the children of Israel, or of the strangers who live as foreigners in Israel, who gives any of his seed to Molech; he shall surely be put to death. The people of the land shall stone him with stones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 20:27 "'A man or a woman that is a medium, or is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones; their blood shall be upon them.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 21:20 Or crookbacked, or a dwarf, or that hath a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, or hath his stones broken; (KJV JPS ASV)
Leviticus 22:24 That which hath its stones bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut, ye shall not offer unto Jehovah; neither shall ye do thus in your land. (See JPS ASV)
Leviticus 24:16 and he who is execrating the name of Jehovah is certainly put to death; all the company do certainly cast stones at him; as a sojourner so a native, in his execrating the Name, is put to death. (YLT)
Leviticus 24:23 Moses spoke to the children of Israel; and they brought forth him who had cursed out of the camp, and stoned him with stones. The children of Israel did as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Numbers 11:8 The people went about taking it up from the earth, crushing it between stones or hammering it to powder, and boiling it in pots, and they made cakes of it: its taste was like the taste of cakes cooked with oil. (BBE YLT NAS)
Numbers 14:10 But all the congregation bade stone them with stones. The glory of Yahweh appeared in the Tent of Meeting to all the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Numbers 15:35 Yahweh said to Moses, "The man shall surely be put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones outside of the camp." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Numbers 15:36 All the congregation brought him outside of the camp, and stoned him to death with stones; as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Numbers 33:52 then you shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their figured stones, and destroy all their molten images, and demolish all their high places: (WEB JPS ASV BBE NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 4:13 And he gave you his agreement with you, the ten rules which you were to keep, which he put in writing on the two stones of the law. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 7:5 But you shall deal with them like this: you shall break down their altars, and dash their pillars in pieces, and cut down their Asherim, and burn their engraved images with fire. (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 8:9 a land in which you shall eat bread without scarceness, you shall not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you may dig copper. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 9:9 When I had gone up into the mountain to be given the stones on which was recorded the agreement which the Lord made with you, I was on the mountain for forty days and forty nights without taking food or drinking water. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 9:10 And the Lord gave me the two stones with writing on them done by the finger of God: on them were recorded all the words which the Lord said to you on the mountain out of the heart of the fire, on the day of the great meeting. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 9:11 Then at the end of forty days and forty nights the Lord gave me those stones, the stones of the agreement. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 9:15 So turning round I came down from the mountain, and the mountain was burning with fire; and the two stones of the agreement were in my hands. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 9:17 And I let the stones go from my hands, and they were broken before your eyes. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 10:1 At that time the Lord said to me, Make two other stones, cut like the first two, and come up to me on the mountain, and make an ark of wood. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 10:2 And I will put on the stones the words which were on the first stones which were broken by you, and you are to put them into the ark. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 10:3 So I made an ark of hard wood, and had two stones cut like the others, and went up the mountain with the stones in my hands. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 10:4 And he put on the stones, as in the first writing, the ten rules which the Lord gave you on the mountain out of the fire on the day of the great meeting: and the Lord gave the stones to me. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 10:5 And turning round I came down from the mountain and put the stones in the ark which I had made; and there they are as the Lord gave me orders. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 12:3 and you shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and you shall cut down the engraved images of their gods; and you shall destroy their name out of that place. (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 13:10 You shall stone him to death with stones, because he has sought to draw you away from Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 17:5 then you shall bring forth that man or that woman, who has done this evil thing, to your gates, even the man or the woman; and you shall stone them to death with stones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 21:21 All the men of his city shall stone him to death with stones: so you shall put away the evil from the midst of you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 22:21 then they shall bring out the young lady to the door of her father's house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death with stones, because she has done folly in Israel, to play the prostitute in her father's house: so you shall put away the evil from the midst of you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 22:24 then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city, and you shall stone them to death with stones; the lady, because she didn't cry, being in the city; and the man, because he has humbled his neighbor's wife: so you shall put away the evil from the midst of you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 23:1 He who is wounded in the stones, or has his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the assembly of Yahweh. (WEB KJV ASV)
Deuteronomy 24:6 No one is to take, on account of a debt, the stones with which grain is crushed: for in doing so he takes a man's living. (BBE YLT NIV)
Deuteronomy 27:2 It shall be on the day when you shall pass over the Jordan to the land which Yahweh your God gives you, that you shall set yourself up great stones, and plaster them with plaster: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 27:4 It shall be, when you have passed over the Jordan, that you shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in Mount Ebal, and you shall plaster them with plaster. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 27:5 There you shall build an altar to Yahweh your God, an altar of stones: you shall lift up no iron tool on them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 27:6 You shall build the altar of Yahweh your God of uncut stones; and you shall offer burnt offerings thereon to Yahweh your God: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 27:8 You shall write on the stones all the words of this law very plainly." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 4:3 and command them, saying,'Take from out of the middle of the Jordan, out of the place where the priests' feet stood firm, twelve stones, and carry them over with you, and lay them down in the lodging place, where you will lodge tonight.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 4:6 that this may be a sign among you, that when your children ask in time to come, saying,'What do you mean by these stones?' (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 4:7 then you shall tell them,'Because the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the ark of the covenant of Yahweh. When it passed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. These stones shall be for a memorial to the children of Israel forever.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)