|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(Matthew 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that there was a separate building so called. The name was given to the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices; four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Hebrews).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A place or building in which stores of wealth are deposited; especially, a place where public revenues are deposited and kept, and where money is disbursed to defray the expenses of government; hence, also, the place of deposit and disbursement of any collected funds.
2. (n.) That department of a government which has charge of the finances.
3. (n.) A repository of abundance; a storehouse.
4. (n.) Hence, a book or work containing much valuable knowledge, wisdom, wit, or the like; a thesaurus; as, Maunder's Treasury of Botany.
5. (n.) A treasure.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
TREASURE; TREASURER; TREASURY
trezh'-ur, trezh'-ur-er, trezh'-ur-i (otsar, genaz, genez, ganzakh, chocen matmon, mickenah, mikhman, `athudh, saphan; gaza, thesauros):
I. In the Old Testament.
The English word "treasure" has in the Old Testament at least five somewhat distinct meanings as expressed in the words: "treasure," genaz (Aramaic) or genez (Hebrew), usually meaning "the thing stored"; translated "treasures" in Ezra 6:1, but in 5:17 and 7:20 translated "treasure-house": "search made in the king's treasure-house." In Esther 3:9; Esther 4:7 the Hebrew form is translated "treasury," as is ganzakh in 1 Chronicles 28:11.
"Storehouse," not the thing stored but the place of storage; 'otsar means depository, cellar, garner, armory, store or treasure-house. In several places it ought to be translated by some of these words. It is the most frequent word for treasure. the English Revised Version and the American Standard Revised Version both translate in some instances by other words, e.g. 1 Kings 7:51, "treasuries of the house of Yahweh," so also 2 Chronicles 5:1; "treasury" in Nehemiah 7:70, 71, "gave to the treasury a thousand darics of gold"; in Job 38:22, "treasuries of the snow" (compare Proverbs 8:21 Jeremiah 10:13; Jeremiah 51:16 Ezra 2:69).
3. Hidden Riches:
"Treasure" or something concealed. There are 3 Hebrew words with this meaning and all in the King James Version translated "treasure." (1) Matmon, which literally means "a secret storehouse" and so a secreted valuable, usually money buried, and so hidden riches of any kind, hid treasures: "treasure in your sacks" (Genesis 43:23); "dig for it more than for hid treasures" (Job 3:21); "search for her as for hid treasures" (Proverbs 2:4); "We have stores hidden in the field, of wheat," etc. (Jeremiah 41:8). (2) Mikhman, treasure as hidden, used only in Daniel 11:43: "have power over the treasures of gold and silver." (3) Saphan, meaning hidden treasure or valuables concealed: "hidden treasures of the sand" (Deuteronomy 33:19).
Perhaps the strength of riches and so treasure, the Hebrew word being chocen, from a root meaning to hoard or lay up: "In the house of the righteous is much treasure" (Proverbs 15:6); "They take treasure and precious things" (Ezekiel 22:25).
5. Something Prepared:
"Something prepared," made ready, the Hebrew word being `athudh, meaning "prepared," "ready," therefore something of value and so treasure: "have robbed their treasures," fortifications or other things "made ready" (Isaiah 10:13).
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word most often translated "treasure" is 'otsar. It occurs in the sing. as follows: Deuteronomy 28:12 1 Chronicles 29:8; Nehemiah 10:38 Psalm 17:14; Psalm 135:4 Proverbs 15:16; Proverbs 21:20 Ecclesiastes 2:8 Isaiah 33:6; Daniel 1:2 Hosea 13:15; in the pl.: Deuteronomy 32:34 1 Kings 14:26; 1 Kings 15:18; 2 Kings 12:18; 2 Kings 14:14; 2 Kings 16:8; 2 Kings 18:15; 2 Kings 20:13, 15; 24:13, etc.
The same word is in the King James Version translated "treasuries" in 1 Chronicles 9:26; 1 Chronicles 28:12 2 Chronicles 32:27; Nehemiah 13:12, 13 Psalm 135:7; and "treasury" in Joshua 6:19, 24 Jeremiah 38:11.
II. In the New Testament.
There are two words translated "treasure": Gaza is of Persian origin, meaning "treasure." Found only once in Acts 8:27 concerning the Ethiopian "who was over all her (Queen Candace's) treasure." In the compound gazophulakion, "guarding of gaza," the same word appears and the compound is translated "treasury" in Mark 12:41, 43 parallel Luke 21:1 John 8:20.
See TEMPLE; TREASURY (OF TEMPLE).
The word thesauros means literally, a "deposit," so wealth and treasure. Evidently throughout the New Testament it has a twofold usage as describing
(1) material treasure, either money or other valuable material possession, and
(2) spiritual treasure, e.g. "like unto treasure hid in a field" (Matthew 13:44); "good treasure of the heart" (Matthew 12:35).
Other references to material treasure are Matthew 6:21; Matthew 13:52 Luke 12:21, 34, etc. References to spiritual treasure are Matthew 19:21 Mark 10:21 Luke 6:45; Luke 12:33; Luke 18:22; plural Matthew 6:20 Colossians 2:3.
In Matthew 27:6 the word for "treasury" is korbanas; compare the Revised Version margin.
TREASURY, (OF TEMPLE)
trezh'-ur-i ('otsar, usually; ganzakh, 1 Chronicles 28:11; gazophulakion, korbanas):
1. Origin of the Treasury:
The need of a "treasury" in connection with the house of Yahweh would early be felt for the reception of the offerings of the people, of tithes, and of the spoils of war dedicated to Yahweh. Already in Joshua 6:19, 24, therefore, we read of a "treasury of the house of Yahweh," into which "the silver and gold, and vessels of brass and iron," taken at Jericho, were brought. In the reign of David, and in his plans for the future temple, great prominence is given to the "treasuries." In 1 Chronicles 26:20; are given the names of those who were over "the treasures of the house of God," and over "the treasures of the dedicated things" ("the spoil won in battles," 26:27), the latter being applied "to repair the house of Yahweh."
2. The Solomonic Temple:
In David's plans for Solomon the "treasuries" (ganzakkim) are mentioned with the "porch," "the houses," the "upper rooms," the "inner chambers" of the Temple (1 Chronicles 28:11); and the same distinction is made of "the treasuries ('otsroth) of the house of God," and "the treasuries of the dedicated things" (1 Chronicles 28:12). In the accounts of the actual building of the Temple, "treasuries" are not mentioned, but subsequent notices give ample evidence of their existence. In the narratives of the repeated plunderings of the Temple (see TEMPLE), constant allusion is made to the carrying away of "the treasures of the house of Yahweh" and "the treasures of the king's house" or palace (1 Kings 14:26; 1 Kings 15:15, 18 2 Kings 12:18; 2 Kings 14:14; 2 Kings 16:8; 2 Kings 18:15; 2 Kings 24:13). In the episode of Jehoash's repair of the Temple (2 Kings 12 2 Chronicles 24), we have a refreshing glimpse of the presence and uses of the treasury; but this brighter gleam is soon swallowed up again in darkness. Of the larger store-chambers we get a glance in Jeremiah, where we are told that "the house of the king" was "under the treasury" (38:11), i.e. on a lower level under the south wall.
3. The Second Temple:
The Book of Ne introduces us to treasury-chambers in the second temple-now used for the voluntary offerings (tithes) of the people-grain, and wine, and oil (Nehemiah 13:4;; compare Malachi 3:10). A certain Meshullam had repaired the city wall "over against his chamber" (Nehemiah 3:30), and he, with other Levites, kept "the watch at the storehouses of the gates" (Nehemiah 12:25). These gates were probably gates of exit on the southern side, as in the Herodian temple.
4. Herod's Temple in the New Testament:
In Herod's temple the name "treasury" was specially given to the "court of the women" (see TEMPLE, HEROD'S), where were 13 trumpet-shaped boxes for the reception of the offerings of the worshippers. It was here that Jesus saw the poor widow cast in her two mites (Mark 12:41 Luke 21:1-4), and the court is expressly named the "treasury" in John 8:20: "These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in the temple." It is a legitimate deduction that this court was the ordinary scene of the Lord's ministry when teaching in the temple.
See also TREASURE, TREASURER, TREASURY.
W. Shaw Caldecott
Treasury (25 Occurrences)
Matthew 27:6 The chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, "It's not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood." (WEB KJV WEY ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:41 Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury. Many who were rich cast in much. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:43 He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, "Most certainly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 21:1 He looked up, and saw the rich people who were putting their gifts into the treasury. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:20 Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, as he taught in the temple. Yet no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 8:27 And having arisen, he went on, and lo, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch, a man of rank, of Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to worship to Jerusalem; (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 28:12 The LORD will open unto thee His good treasure the heaven to give the rain of thy land in its season, and to bless all the work of thy hand; and thou shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow. (See RSV)
Joshua 6:19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are holy to Yahweh. They shall come into Yahweh's treasury." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 6:24 They burnt the city with fire, and all that was in it. Only they put the silver, the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron into the treasury of Yahweh's house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 20:13 and Hezekiah hearkeneth unto them, and sheweth them all the house of his treasury, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the good ointment, and all the house of his vessels, and all that hath been found in his treasuries; there hath not been a thing that Hezekiah hath not shewed them, in his house, and in all his dominion. (YLT)
1 Chronicles 29:8 and he with whom stones are found hath given to the treasury of the house of Jehovah, by the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite. (YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 2:69 they gave after their ability into the treasury of the work sixty-one thousand darics of gold, and five thousand minas of silver, and one hundred priests' garments. (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the archives, where the treasures were laid up, in Babylon. (See NIV)
Ezra 6:4 with three courses of great stones, and a course of new timber: and let the expenses be given out of the king's house. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:8 Moreover I make a decree what you shall do to these elders of the Jews for the building of this house of God: that of the king's goods, even of the tribute beyond the River, expenses be given with all diligence to these men, that they be not hindered. (See NAS NIV)
Ezra 7:20 And whatsoever more shall be needful for the house of thy God, which thou shalt have occasion to bestow, bestow it out of the king's treasure-house. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 7:70 Some from among the heads of fathers' houses gave to the work. The governor gave to the treasury one thousand darics of gold, fifty basins, and five hundred thirty priests' garments. (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 7:71 Some of the heads of fathers' houses gave into the treasury of the work twenty thousand darics of gold, and two thousand two hundred minas of silver. (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 10:38 And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes; and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure-house. (See NIV)
Esther 3:9 If it please the king, let it be written that they be destroyed; and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the hands of those that have the charge of the king's business, to bring it into the king's treasuries.' (See NIV)
Esther 4:7 And Mordecai told him of all that had happened unto him, and the exact sum of the money that Haman had promised to pay to the king's treasuries for the Jews, to destroy them. (See NIV)
Jeremiah 38:11 So Ebedmelech took the men with him, and went into the house of the king under the treasury, and took there rags and worn-out garments, and let them down by cords into the dungeon to Jeremiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)
Jeremiah 50:25 Jehovah hath opened His treasury, And He bringeth out the weapons of His indignation, For a work 'is' to the Lord Jehovah of Hosts, In the land of the Chaldeans. (YLT)
Daniel 1:2 and the Lord giveth into his hand Jehoiakim king of Judah, and some of the vessels of the house of God, and he bringeth them in 'to' the land of Shinar, 'to' the house of his god, and the vessels he hath brought in 'to' the treasure-house of his god. (See NAS RSV)
Zechariah 11:13 And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price that I was prized at by them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them unto the potter, in the house of Jehovah. (See JPS RSV)